Robert Stone - Burning Heart Patrick Hoolley - Catching Your Time The Big Brother - L. Time Johny Bomb! Norma Sheffield - Your Body Lies Kelly Marshall - Now I Know Jimmy McFoy - Experience Paul Murray - Commedia 4. Domino - Fall In Love 6. Lucrezia B - Set Me Free 8. Annerley Gordon - Donna 9. Paula Roberts - One More Night Raymond Barry - Get Back 2. Toby Ash - Are You Ready 3. Robert Stone - Black Cars 4. Virginelle - Tango Tango 5. James Cooler - Lover To Lover 6.
Mario Ross - More Illusions 7. Body Power - Everybody Physical 8. The Big Brother - Big Time 9. Mike Skanner - Hot Dog Debby Jason - Day By Day Manzi-Bellini - In Your Eyes Leslie Feat. Robert Stone - Black Cars 3. Rick Wild - Fire Desire 4. Paul Murray - Commedia 5. Lucrezia B - Set Me Free 6. James Cooler - Lover To Lover 7. Domino - Fall In Love 8.
Jilly - Touch Me 9. We sympathize with the surviving victims of this series calamity of unimaginable proportions and with the whole nation and individual PAJS members got particularly involved in various under- takings to actively demonstrate the depth of our sympathy. Nippon — gambare! In the short run — that is, during the war itself — various political forces in Poland e.
Polish Socialist Party, National League sought to exploit it for their own ends including the restoration of an indepen- dent Polish stateestablishing direct contacts with representatives of the Japanese government.
The impact of the war in the short run: — Genesis: Black Night - Various - Super Eurobeat Vol. 19 - Non-Stop Mix (CD) and Japan prior to Due to unfavorable historical circumstances — i. The situation improved somewhat after Japan opened its borders and began the process of modernization. During this time, the Japanese sought to gain knowledge about Black Night - Various - Super Eurobeat Vol.
19 - Non-Stop Mix (CD) rest of the world as quickly as possible, and foreigners — including Poles — were able to visit the distant chain of islands in the Pacific and learn the culture of Japan at first hand. Information about Poland and its history likewise began to reach Japan. Fukushima sent information about Russia and anti-Czarism move- ments in the Polish territories to the Japanese Army General Staff, which made use of it immediately prior to and during the Russo-Japanese War.
This was the first time in history that cooperation, though still unofficial, took place between representatives of the government of Japan and Poles.
Before the war began on February 10,the Japanese authorities decided to make Black Night - Various - Super Eurobeat Vol. 19 - Non-Stop Mix (CD) with representatives of groups that opposed Russian rule over the nations of Europe, including Poles, and to exploit their efforts to regain indepen- dence for the purpose of weakening their huge enemy.
Petersburg, was sent to Stockholm. Akashi, who met Dmowski in Cracow at the beginning of the war, encouraged him to foment an uprising on the Polish territories, which together with other insur- rections against Czarist rule in Europe e. Finlandwould divert Russian forces from the Far-Eastern theatre of war, as Akashi reasoned Inaba 26— But Dmowski maintained that, considering the situation at that time, such an uprising would only end in yet another tragedy for the Poles Dmowski 91—2.
And it would not produce the expected benefits for Japan, as Russia would quickly suppress it and then redirect a part of its forces in the Polish lands to its army fighting Japan in the Far East — thus strengthening its forces against Japan. Dmowski argued the threat of an uprising breaking out would be more advantageous for Japan, than an actual uprising itself. He nevertheless proposed cooperation that would take the form of surrender without fighting by Poles in the Russian Army in Manchuria.
Akashi liked this idea. He wanted to present his views directly to the Japanese authorities; moreover, he wanted to warn them against what he felt would be the negative effects of insurrectional activities planned by the Polish socialists, whom he suspected — correctly, as it turned out — Black Night - Various - Super Eurobeat Vol. 19 - Non-Stop Mix (CD) having also made contact with the Japanese. Akashi did not limit his Polish contacts to Dmowski. The Poles liked this idea, realizing that if the railway were destroyed it would substantially hinder and possibly even prevent the sending of Poles impressed into the Czarist army to the Far East.
But because the first attempts at sabotage failed, Akashi decided to train two persons specially selected for this purpose by Balicki. No one in the ranks of the National League was deemed to be suitable, so help was sought from the co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz — The training took place in Paris and lasted several weeks. Thus, the plan to sabotage the Trans-Siberian Railway was ultimately a failure.
GGS1. There were probably some attempts to destroy other railways, i. The socialists undertook their first attempt to make contact with the Japanese, through Count Makino Nobuaki, the Minister of Japanese Legation in Vienna, in early February — before Akashi met with Dmowski.
Because the attempt did not succeed, another try was made in London He presented him proposals concerning, inter alias, the creation of a Polish legion under the Japa- nese army, which would consist of Polish POWs and Poles from America, and the dissemination of revolutionary, anti-Czarism literature among Polish soldiers in the Russian army in Manchuria, which would encourage these soldiers to des- ert, thereby weakening Russian forces.
Jodko also spoke about the possibility of destroying bridges and railroads in eastern Russia and Siberia. Although no agreement was reached, talks in London and exchange of correspondence continued Because the Polish side was very interested in building this cooperation, they began to provide the Japanese with information about the deployment of Russian forces, the number of soldiers placed in the Russian army before and after the outbreak of war.
But the Polish social- ists decided to demand some degree of reciprocity from the Japanese It was decided that more could be decided through direct, confidential talks than by means of official correspondence.
Only upon his arrival did he find out that Dmowski had been in Tokyo since 15 May Dmowski, aware that a PSP representative would soon visit Japan, tried to see Minister of Foreign Affairs Komura immediately after his arrival in the country. He wrote a draft appeal of the Japanese government to Polish soldiers in the Russian Army calling upon them to desert and surrender to the Japanese.
He also helped edit an appeal to sol- diers of other nationalities. He also obtained a promise from his hosts that, after the war, they would not send Polish POWs back to Russia who did not wish to return but to America instead, so as to avoid being court-martialed for deser- tion Unfortunately, he never met Kodama or Fukushima, to whom Utsunomiya had addressed letters of recommendation for him, because they had been sent to the staff command- ing Japanese forces in Manchuria.
He wrote length about the Poles, their political aspirations, their revolutionary-organizational experience acquire over a century of struggle against the partitioning power, their aims and capacity to undertake specific actions. He emphasized that despite the cultural differences and discrepancies in objectives and political position of the two nations, only Poles, and mainly the PSP, were able to help Japan in its struggle against Russia. The draft agreement between the PSP and Japan was written in a similar tone Although the fact that differences existed between Polish and Japanese interests was not ignored, it was felt that coop- eration was possible and could yield favorable results for both parties.
The PSP expected financial support from Japan, arms shipments, the organization of a Pol- ish legion, special treatment of Polish POWs and cooperation on the international arena, inter alias, by helping Poles make contact with the governments of states whose foreign policy was directed against Russia. Douglas — —5. At that point he became convinced that they held diametrically opposed positions concerning exploitation of the Russo-Japanese war for the Polish cause and could not leave the matter without further comment on his part.
So, in his third memorial he explained his fears concerning revolutionary activities in the Polish lands, which he was convinced would be suppressed quickly and bloodily by Russian forces. He emphasized that any form of rebellion in Poland would be unfavorable for Japan and desirable for the Czarist authorities, who were waiting for some way to compensate for the defeats they had suffered in the Far East. He explained that the National League sought to maintain its political line, which he believed to be the only path leading to a favorable outcome for the Polish cause; by contrast, armed activities of any sort would only retard this process.
But the main reason for their decision was the difference in interests between the PSP and Japanese government, and also differences in views about cooperation with the PSP between Japanese military authorities, represented by the General Staff, and Japanese civil authorities, as represented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Japan had only just entered the international arena and did not wish to risk the standing it had achieved for a cause not directly related to the furtherance of its established foreign policy.
Despite a joint dec- laration, none of the parties departed from its program. It was decided at this conference that revolutionary demonstrations would be launched that sum- mer, first in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, then spreading out over a broad scale. Demonstrations against the Czarism took place in the Polish Kingdom in late and early In exchange, they received information about the course of mobilization, movements and morale of Russian forces sent to the Far East, Russian policies in the Polish lands and the mood of the general public.
Although Polish-Japanese cooperation during the war did not yield all the ben- efits the two parties had hoped for, it undoubtedly contributed to future ties between the two nations when they initiated official relations after World War I.
Dmowski very willingly referred to his observations from Japan in his later works. He admired Japanese civilisation and culture, and the civil and human values of the Japanese nation. He realised how important moral values and the connection of the indi- vidual with society and its history were.
Japan must be great and must live for ever — its every son wants it and is ready to sacrifice for it. This wish and this readiness of self-sacrifice — is exactly the main treasure of Japan, the source of its power, the secret of its victories. Therefore we are the nation with the most free will, which settles into the shape of lawlessness and playfulness if we do not feel we are in captivity. During this war the idea of duty prevailed. This is a good reminder for all of us who speak more and more about the rights due to us and who are increas- ingly losing a sense of the duties incumbent upon every member of society.
He considered their strategic and tactical ideas to be precursory, and behind the strategy taken in World War I, as well as in the Polish-Bolshevik War of He specified not only the number of medals and their class, but also the units and battles in which they fought. See also documents in GGS: L. Marshall Oku was unable to participate due to illness, thus the decoration was given him through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
A majority of the most meritorious commanders were no longer alive, so it was necessary to find worthy replacements for them. It was decided that recipients of the Polish medals would be chosen from among those who had been awarded Japanese decorations that were the equivalent of the Polish Virtuti Militari.
Gen- eral Oku took part in the ceremony, but as a guest of honor, as he had been offi- cially decorated together with general Kawamura in The most outstanding commanders of the Russo-Japanese War received proof of gratitude from reborn Poland for their toil and combat, which unbeknownst to them had signifi- cance in our struggle for freedom and independence.
Publications on Japan in Poland Interest among Poles about Japan sharply increased during the war, which is evident from the number of publications on Japan — and not only directly about war-related topics — that appeared in — They included works translated from European languages as well as longer and shorter publications by Polish authors.
Knowledge from these publications was used by Polish authors who had not yet had an opportunity to travel to Japan. So we have to keep in mind that this information was to some extent limited, fragmentary and not free of distortions, but considerably more accurate and about not merely the course of the war, but primarily about Japanese history and its culture in general.
During the war, Japan appears to have become a model of the traits essential for a strong nation and state — traits which were so badly needed by Poland under the partitioning powers.
Poles were impressed by the courage of the Japanese, who — barely a few decades after having launched the process of modernisation and disregarding their dearth of experience in contacts with Western powers — fought a victorious war against the mighty Russian Empire. He thus stressed valor, honor, personal dignity, spirit of sacrifice, obedience, which in his opinions were traits worthy of emulation. The opinions of friends may be pleasant, but the respect of enemies is certifi- cation of true value.
A person who is unable to control his anger, grief or joy is considered a barbarian in Japan. No less beautiful are their social virtues, supreme among which is patriotism. Japanese patriotism is not based on hatred or disparagement of outsiders, but on love of everything that is theirs. When the good of the army requires that several people sacrifice themselves to certain death, not several but Everyone must work on themselves in these directions if they wish to receive respect.
He created, in keeping with the conventional conceptions of Japan of the time, an image of Japan as a land of fearless knights and of virginally charming women. He painted with great skill the Japanese land- scape and described the mentality of the Japanese people. Poland, which regained its independence after World War I, sought to solidify its statehood and strengthen its position on the international arena. This was particularly important for Japan, which, as a young world power, badly needed accurate information about its most dangerous neighbor.
Polish-Japanese relations, however, were dominated by military co-operation, including co-operation between intelligence services. Polish cryptologists, whom the Japanese considered to be outstanding particularly in deciphering Russian codespassed on their knowledge to Japanese officers in Tokyo as well as in Poland in various training centers. This co-operation continued unofficially even during World War II, when Poland and Japan officially belonged to opposite sides.
He was mainly interested in having Japanese personnel trained in cryptography by Poles, who were considered to be specialists due to their long experience in the field.
Years later, he recalled these efforts: During the Polish-Soviet War, the Polish side often provided us concrete informa- tion on the breaking of Soviet codes. After discussing the matter together and listening to the opinion of this specialist, I decided to present the mat- ter in Japan. Finally, at the beginning ofCaptain Jan Kowalewski — traveled to Tokyo for three months at the official invitation of the Japanese General Staff The course conducted by Kowalewski became the basis for further research and work.
They raised the level of cryptography in the Japanese Army Ariga —5. The handbook was mainly about Soviet codes, but it also included information about codes used by other countries. After returning to Japan, all of them worked in the General Staff or in Japanese units in China, where they put the skills they had acquired in Poland into practice.
For example, Lieutenat Colonel Hyakutake was in charge of the Codes Section from July to mid—, when he went to Harbin to head up the intelligence post there. Besides the aforementioned cryptog- raphers, other Japanese officers visited Poland in the s mainly for the purpose of exchanging information about the USSR, but also to learn the organizational methods of the Polish Army The most important event during this period appears to have been a visit by representatives of the Japanese General Staff, organized by the Polish Ministry of Military Affairs and the General Staff.
It is likely that the main purpose of their visit was to discuss further cooperation with Department II of the Polish General Staff concerning the exchange of infor- mation.
June 27,p. Co-operation, which consisted mainly of exchanging information, was also conducted in Tokyo, particularly at the behest of General Yamawaki, who from the end of worked at Department II. It began by comparing the information the two staffs had on the deployment of large units of the Soviet Army. We had to compare the sources of the two staffs.
Manchuria and the Russian Far East — those were the territories that specially interested the Japanese gov- ernment. This direction was expressed by the Japanese Army and General Staff At that time, the Japanese decided that Warsaw constituted a very good strategic point for setting up a kind of coordinating center for Japanese intelligence in Europe directed mainly toward the East, but also the West.
Also, probably over a hundred officers and non-commissioned officers came to Poland to study or to take brief training courses in the s However, in this case as well it is impossible to reconstruct the entire list, because almost none of the Japanese documents on the subject have survived, and Polish source materials contain varying and sometimes contradictory information It is certain that in accordance with what was decided in the s, the Japanese General Staff delegated Captain Fukai Eiichi and Cap- tain Sakurai Nobuta to Poland for the sake of deepening their skills in the field of cryptography, especially relating to the Black Night - Various - Super Eurobeat Vol.
19 - Non-Stop Mix (CD). Evidence that the Japanese General Staff cooperated with Poles and that its main aim was to collect information about the USSR was a conference of General Staff representatives, which took place in Warsaw 10—13 December Japanese sources do not mention anything, however, about his stay in Poland Hata ed.
Thus, the most important task for Japanese military representatives in Poland in the s and s was to obtain information about the USSR and to deepen their cryptographic skills and general knowledge on intelligence operations. They are friendly to our country and demon- strate a good understanding of our interests and our policy on the Soviet front. This circumstance has created fairly familiar personal ties between our embassy and lead- ing circles in the army, in contrast to other foreign embassies in Tokyo.
Despite pressure applied by Germany, the Japanese military authorities did not change their relations with the representatives of Poland in Tokyo, even after the signing of the Tripartite Pact. Japan continued, as in the s and s, to take advantage of help provided by representatives of the Polish intelligence service. Cryptologists probably contin- ued to operate in Manchukuo, helping the Kwantung Army to break Soviet codes and providing information about the USSR In exchange for infor- mation, they pledged to conceal Polish intelligence officers at their diplomatic posts in Germany, the Baltic countries and Scandinavia, and permitted them to send intel- ligence reports through Japanese diplomatic mail, mainly to the collecting center in Stockholm.
On October 4,our embassies were officially closed, and on December 11, after Poland — an ally of Great Britain — declared war on Japan, our two countries found themselves in opposing camps. However, despite severed diplomatic ties, unofficial military cooperation between Poland and Japan continued throughout the war. Because I have already discussed this subject at fairly great length, I will only mention the most important facts that attest to the continuation of cooperation between the Japanese and Polish intelligence services in relation to the USSR Chapman 57— Because there were no Japanese citizens in Lithuania, there was no need for consular care, thus it is likely that the Japanese government chose that location because it afforded an opportunity to observe this part of Europe, mainly the Soviet Union, particularly in view of worsening relations between Japan and the USSR in connection with the Nomonhan incident.
Sugihara wrote about the reasons for opening the con- sulate in Kaunas himself in a report he wrote in Russian, probably inat the request of a Pole or Poles who had cooperated with him during the war And when Sugihara had to leave Kaunas — among other reasons because of the widely know episode in which he issued transit visas to several thousand Jews51 — he sent both Poles to Germany Romer private archive.
Daszkiewicz At the beginning of his stay in Stockholm, Onodera was interested primarily in whether the Germans would attack England or the Soviet Union first. Rybikowski also provided his Japanese superior information about the situation on the front in Europe and the activities of the USSR and Germany, in exchange for which Onodera helped him transfer mail to the West and warned him about Germans.
This cooperation lasted until From that moment on, the Poles took a liking to and admired the Japanese for their courage, devotion to their country, and unswerving pursuit of their ideologi- cal and political goals. The most important aspect for the Japanese, as was the case during the war, was informa- tion, mainly military intelligence, about our common, dangerous neighbor. Poland, which just entered the international arena after the First World War and sought to bolster its standing in the world, was interested in support for its foreign policy by a country recognized to be a power, Japan, and the counterweight good relations with Japan provided to its mainly difficult relations with the USSR.
Moreover, as publications of the era show, in general, the Poles admired the Japa- nese mainly because of the spirit of Japan. Historically, this was of course not an unexpected phenomenon, but a logical conclusion of the mil- lennia of the cult of military virtues prized so highly by the samurai. Bibliography I. Japanese-Soviet war at the end of warno. Publications Ariga Tsutao Zeszyty Historyczne— Chapman, J. Sugihara biza-to Yudayajin [escape to freedom, Sugihara visas and Jews].
Daszkiewicz, Leszek Reports and documents], Anglia [England] unpub- lished. Dmowski, Roman Warszawa: PAX. Douglas, James — Helsinki: Societas Historica Finlandiae. Garlicki, Andrzej Warszawa: Czytelnik.
Hata Ikuhiko ed. Warszawa unpublished. Inaba Chiharu From the perspective of the camp in Matsuyama]. The Japan Times [no title], March 9. Londyn: Polska Fundacja Kulturalna. Wspomnienia [memoirs]. Komori Tokuji Makino Nobuaki Kaikoroku [memoirs], vol. Roman Dmowski.
Warszawa: Verum. Matsuyama: Ehime Shimbunsha. In: Otakebi [War cry]. Barutokai-no hotori-nite [somewhere on the Baltic]. Seiron 5, — Japonica 2, 97— Images and Perceptions. Richmond: Curzon Press Ltd. Discussion Paper Series, F— Romer a.
Romer b. Polish-Japanese cooperation]. Polonica 5, 12— Warszawa: Bellona. In Pisma zbiorowe, vol. Pisma zbiorowe [collected works], vol. Warszawa: Gebethner i Wolff. Kroniki [Chronicles], vol Romer, Tadeusz Shimanuki Shigeyoshi Sugihara Chiune Japonica 7, — Sugihara Yukiko Rokusennin inochi no viza [life visas for 6, people].
Visas for Life. San Francisco: Holocaust Oral History pre- publication copy. Inochi no visa [a deci- sion, visas for life]. Samuraje [the samurai]. Watanabe Katsumasa Sugihara visa [the truth, Sugihara visas].
Feelings of love held an important place in the very first forms of verbal expression during the preliterate period. Love quickly came to be recognized by the first creators of literature to be a significant aspect of court life and dominated the subject matter of most writers. The main questions to which I seek answers in this article pertain primarily to the functioning of courtly love as a leitmotif in Heian period 8thth centuries belles- lettres.
A motif is a kind of generalization, a broad conception of important ideas, phenomena and feelings — for instance, love, death, hate etc. In a concrete work, motifs undergo particularization and become literary topics. According to this definition, we can speak about love as a certain inventive motif around which specific topics or compositional schemes are created. Then we can speak about — to use Ernst R. In his opinion, toposes that originated in ancient rhetoric became cliches exploited in literature.
See Curtius 86— In her opinion, feelings are devoid of internal struc- ture; they can be described only in an indirect manner, by presenting external states, situations or thoughts associated with them. A similar position is taken by the cognitivists George Lakoff and Mark Johnson4, who posit that feelings are hard to show in the form of a conceptual structure, but can be described by providing their semantic representation, or linguistic manifestation.
Thus, using certain symbolic — otherwise known as cog- nitive — models7 built on basis of the etymology of names for love, we can impose order on these words and the expressions associated with them8. All translations by this autor, unless otherwise indicated. It presents the full semantic structure of a feeling, also taking into account its definition by stating its meta- phorical understanding. See Iwona Nowakowska-Kempna The ontological metaphore shows certain abstract constructs, notions or feelings as concrete substantial things.
This feeling of love is experienced the most fully when one contemplates it alone. However, it appeared relatively rarely in Heian period romantic literature. The noun ai originated in Buddhist terminology, which explains its presence in sutra texts and Buddhist setsuwa parables, in which it indicated a feeling of love with maternal or parental underpinnings9. The semantic field of the noun ai primarily emphasizes a sense of devotion and care — for instance, by a ruler in relation to his subjects, parents to their children, or people to animals In romantic literature, however, ai is not used to describe the feelings between a woman and a man The noun nasake feelings, emotions 13 can also be classified under the first model.
The Japanese noun lexeme nasake indicated all feelings that Black Night - Various - Super Eurobeat Vol. 19 - Non-Stop Mix (CD) from the emotional nature of man.
Its field of meaning encompassed such feel- ings and emotions as: friendship, feeling of closeness, fondness, sympathy and love.
The word koi contained the sense of a painful and bitter yearning for a person who has left forever died or ended the relationshipleft on a trip for a long time, or simply is not present.
The frequency of the word koi is likewise very high in later anthologies of Heian period poetry, also in the romantic verses appearing in court tales This is because it is one of the most frequently used words for feelings of love between a man and woman. Five volumes were devoted to them, the same as poems about the seasons, which attests to the importance attached to the topic of love in poetry.
In accordance with ancient religious beliefs, tamagoi symbolized a magical act performed by two persons close to each other. A person close to the deceased would go to the places where the lost soul could be, calling it. When the soul was found, it penetrated into the body of the living person, thereby finding solace. The invita- tion was a signal of readiness to experience love. See Origuchi —9. All these forms express feelings of romantic longing and love that remains unfulfilled.
In contemporary Japanese, its meaning is bound up with the func- tioning of the human intellect and primarily indicates pensiveness and reflection. The meaning of this ideograph emphasized the heat of emotion experienced in omoi love. The dominant experience became hot, strong passion. The second model also includes the word aware, which occurred in several var- iants in classical literature See Shige- matsu 12— The meaning of aware here is close to the feelings of sorrow and despair.
After her death, the emperor unceasingly felt the great sorrow of love Thus, in the description of love between a man and woman, aware most often expressed a feeling of romantic nostalgia and sympathy. It had two broad complimentary meanings. The noun lexeme that repre- sents this model the most fully is suki. It primarily denotes intense sensual attrac- tion as well as deep romantic infatuation The adjective The word aware denoted a broadly conceived emotionality and sensitivity.
This word has a double meaning, which performs a double function in verse. Infatuation with a person of the opposite sex, sexual attraction; 2. Deep interest in the arts: poetry, calligraphy, tea ceremony, flower arrangement. The second meaning of suki evolved only in the Medieval period of knightly culture. See Kogo daijiten It should be noted that all the derivatives of the lexeme ada had solely negative connotations. Suki has close semantic links and a shared ideographic notation with the word irogonomi sensual love.
Irogonomi expresses desire directed toward the entire image of human beauty perceived by the senses. The noun irogonomi and its verbal form irogonomu reflected a rich and varied love life, above-average activeness and passion in love.
Literary characters associated with irogonomi — e. Prince Genji and Ariwara Narihira, the hero of Ise monoga- tari — were endowed with emotional sensitivity as well as an insatiable desire to make new amorous conquests. Love was also expressed with the help of a broad array of symbols and meta- phors. Japanese romantic literature referred to an existing literary tradition which constituted a frame of reference not only for writers, but also for the tastes and preferences of the literary public at the time.
This tradition included a particular set of conventions such as: choice of topics and motifs, figures of speech, words or expressions. One of the main elements of literary expression, especially in poetry, imposed upon authors by convention was the special relationship between the natural world and human emotions. An engo is a group of two or three words appearing in verse and remaining within strictly specified semantic relations with each other based on associations.
The lexical wealth characterizing descriptions of loving feelings attests to the broad conception of love, ranging over parental, promised, unhappy and sensual variants of love. All the aforementioned direct names for love as well as the symbols and metaphors used in romantic poetry shape a sophisticated means of expressing feelings.
Many examples of such songs can be found in the oldest Japanese chronicles — Kojiki Record of Ancient Matters, and Nihonshoki Chronicles of Japan from the earliest times to A. Its sound layer was characterized by irregular syllabic construction and a division into stanzas; its content layer, by numerous parallelisms, repetitions and refrains. In the oldest Japanese poetry, eroticism was understood to be a basic human need and manifested in the desire for physical union between man and woman in the sexual act.
The man is presented as a traveler who traverses the various lands of Japan in search of new wives and lovers. The woman is a passive figure who patiently waits until her longed-for man shows up and discovers her. He states that their subject matter as well as form continually changed.
See Melanowicz The hero of this story is the god Tatipoko, who travels to the distant land of Koshi in search of a new beloved. There he meets the beautiful Nunakapa hime.
In accordance with custom, he stands in front of her home and woos her by declaim- ing or singing his poem. He proudly presents himself to the object of his affection and declares how long he has had to travel to find her. Smiling radiantly Like the Morning Sun, With your arms White as the rope of Taku fibers, You will embrace My breast, alive with youth, Soft as the light snow; We shall embrace and entwine our bodies The man, in accordance with prevailing custom, should visit his beloved after nightfall and leave her home at dawn.
The woman impatiently awaits his evening visit. In her poem, she promises the man delights of the flesh and fulfillment of his love, as she desires to fall asleep in his arms. Yet, being fully aware of the estab- lished division of roles and duties in love relationships, she does not expect an assurance of fidelity on his part. Her poem is a profession of fidelity and love to one man. Will you not tell me your name? Over the spacious land of Yamato it is I who reign so wide and far, it is I who rule so wide and far.
I myself, as your lord, will tell you of my home and my name It shows the efforts made by the young ruler who by chance meets a beautiful girl picking herbs and decides to wed her. He desires that his beloved reveal her name to him. The man introduced himself first, mentioning his name and social status. In this manner he expressed his desire to marry. By answering his question, the woman expressed her agree- ment to his proposal of marriage.
Lyrical forms thus became the basic mode of romantic conversation and corre- spondence in Japanese literary tradition. Courtiers considered lyrical poetry, per- forming primarily a phatic function, to be the most appropriate form of expressing deeply moving experiences. Ki-no Tsurayuki views the source of poetry to lie in the human heart kokorounderstood as the abode of all feelings and emotions. See Keene The mysterious Oborozukiyo, with whom the Prince has a passionate affair, carefully avoids revealing her real name.
Ukifune, too, resists giving her name when she meets Prince Niou. We who live in this world are constantly affected by different experiences, and we express our thoughts in words, in terms of what we have seen and heard Poetry thus understood is an expression and presentation of desires and feelings concealed in the heart. This form, borrowed from Chinese poetry, consisted of private poetic letters in question-and-answer format.
They presented love in the context of married and family life, thus were very often sent to a particular partner, expressly indicated with the help of appropriate pronouns or nouns How I waste and waste away With love forlorn— I who have thought myself A strong man!
In the depths of his heart, the poet experiences the bitterness of concealed passion, which he describes as madness. Even a tough guy proved to be weak and defenseless in the grip of so strong an emotion. This was manifested in the stylization of love and more intellectual approach to the topic. Poets ceased to describe solely their experiences relating to love and began to convey their own reflections on the subject of love, or what could be called the philosophy of love. The new, intellectual approach to love entailed the subduing and refinement of feelings or even imposition of a contemplative-philosophical char- acter on them.
Many poems were devoted to attempts to define the phenomenon of love. Con- sequently, poets stopped addressing their poems to a particular recipient. Hito was used by a man to denote a woman, as well as by a woman to denote a man. An anonymous author addressed his poem to a mysterious woman indifferent to his advances tsurenaki hito.
Loving a heartless unmerciful creature [tsurenaki hito] I justly breathe laments until the mountain echo answers my piteous plaints40 The expression tsurenaki hito heartless, unmerciful creature symbolizes a beloved person in a fairly general way. The word hito person introduces a cer- tain ambiguity and mystery, because it could mean a specific woman or it could suggest a beautiful woman in general.
The topic of a poem by the poetess Ono Komachi? Poem no. This poem is an intellectual game that refers to Buddhist conceptions about the illusory nature of the world and human emotions. The unfaithful and fickle heart of man is compared to a flower whose color changes, though we do not per- ceive the change. Ariwara Narihira experienced similar doubts rooted in the illusory nature of feelings. Did you come to me, Or did I go to you? I have no idea A dream or reality? Was I asleep or awake?
The murkiness in his heart symbolizes his sense of being lost. Love poetry sprang from the authentic experiences of its authors, occupying an important place in romantic conversation and correspondence. While it began as the main form used to express feelings of love, it came to be an artistic endeavor that provided its own aesthetic pleasures.
Love and poetry were inseparably linked in the Heian period, as love spoke the language of poetry in everyday life as well as the literary world. The topic of love in epic works In monogatari courtly tales and nikki diaries of the Heian period, love is the predominant motif.
In contrast to the first epic works from the VIII century i. The selection of romantic plots and toposes is subordinated primarily to the principles of courtly elegance miyabi. Instead of erotic scenes, readers find highly sophisticated romantic rapture, emotion and longing. They are conveyed through lyric poetry, which is also present in nar- rative works.
Heroes often speak about love in the language of poetry. Love is pro- fessed, described and conveyed in romantic verse, which assumes the short — 31 syl- lable — tanka form. Thus, in courtly tales43 as well as diaries, the lyrical passages take the form of a romantic monologue or dialogue.
The man-conqueror who set off on a journey to distant provinces in search of the ideal wife often had to struggle with adversity of various kinds. In kigi chronicles, most journeys under- taken by ancient rulers or heroes were motivated by the desire to find a new wife. The most amorous rulers, about whose erotic travels much has been written, were the emperors Nintoku V c.
Hi, I am and have been looking for these albums for so many years and have been very unsuccessful. If anybody has them and can share with me, I will be eternally grateful. Hi, I have them as mp3. You can mail me at edenelectro gmail. Enjoying the files? Please leave some comments :. So popular has this new dance form become that Europe now has an official Eurobeat chart to replace the old style dance chart. Remixes and Mega Mixes have been used and sequed-wayed together to form a 'non-stop' double dance spetacular, thus bringing you the sound of Europe's Top Clubs.
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