It condemns to the Buddhist hell the man "who has accosted another's acolyte and wickedly violated him"aa and he "who commits the wickedness of loving and violating [another] man. The phrase "tanin no chigo,'' could mean "another acolyte," "another's acolyte," or perhaps simply "someone's child.
But this is unlikely, as the second expression employed seems to condemn homosexual acts as such. It is certain that Genshin was drawing Album) Sanskrit and Chinese scriptures such as the Saddharma-smrti-upasthana, cited previously that emphasize the sinfulness of male-male sexual contact. But the image is highly antipathetic, and it seems probable that the Kukai- Mount Koya legend was developed by monks or laymen long after the holy man's death simply to legitimatize nanshoku in the face of earlier Buddhist condemnation.
The legend seems to date no further back than the Muromachi period; the oldest reference I have found is in a poem by the celebrated Zen monk and poet Ikkyu How, given the strong anti-homosexual biases of continental Buddhist texts and of Genshin's work based upon them, do we explain the emergence of a conspicuous monastic homosexual culture? Japan's distance from other centers of Buddhist culture and the court's decision early in the ninth century to discontinue routine contact with China may have reduced the influence of texts that condemned male-male sex.
If the traditional Buddhist hostility to male-male sex could thus be neutralized in Japan, other religious and philosophical schools could pose no more challenge there than in China or Korea. Had these traditions been hostile to nanshoku, they would probably have encouraged Buddhist opposition to the phenomenon, as Buddhism in Japan developed a close symbiotic relationship with the native Shinto cult and served as the vehicle for Confucian and other continental learning.
But such hostility did not exist. The native cult, as noted, had virtually nothing to say on the subject; it simply regarded "sexual love [as] an unconditional good. Marriages seem to have been contracted freely and informally and could be readily dissolved. Saikaku pointed out that the first three generations of deities, described in the eighth-century Nihongi chronicle, included no females: "This," he declared, "represents the historical origin of shud.
Japanese Confucian scholars were also largely unconcerned with the issue of homosexuality. The monk Gen'ewho expounded upon Confucian classics to Emperor Go-Daigo, was himself sexually attracted to boys, and Tokugawa literature even depicts professional Confucian scholarscc patronizing male prostitutes. Confucian writers such as Ogyu Sorai and Arai Hakuseki seem to have taken nanshoku itself for granted; they only raised objections when the fashions of men of status began to emulate the costume of male prostitutes, when sexual propositioning in public began to create violent incidents, or when shoguns excessively rewarded their minions with land and offices.
He did not lend his voice to the ex-noh actor's critics, who alleged that Ienobu "would lead his attendant, Manabe Akifusa, and other pages As elsewhere in East Asia, yin-yang thought influenced Japanese views about sex.
The god of healing buggers the god of thunder, perhaps to punish him for bringing famine or floods. Artist and date unknown. Sun Simo and expressing yin-yang concepts of sex, was reprinted in Tokugawa Japan. Given the lack of moral sanction against nanshoku in these various religious and philosophical systems, many in the Buddhist clergy felt justified indulging in such behavior, regardless of their vows of chastity.
Although sixteenth- century Jesuits reported that Buddhist priests denied that nanshoku was a sin, it seems clear that male-male sex was often viewed with some ambivalence, even by those who Drag The River - Disciples Of Agriculture - Disciples Of Agriculture (CD in it.
In Nanboku Tsuruya's drama Sakura hime azuma bunsho Eastern documents of the cherry-blossom princess,a priest and acolyte attempt double suicide because their trysts have distracted the priest from his religious devotions; they find it hard "to go on living, wondering how the temple [monks] are criticizing [us].
In one of Saikaku's tales, the monk Gengobei reflects: "When I abandoned the word [for the religious life], I vowed to Buddha that I would give up all thought of sex with women. However, I couldn't stop thinking about the 'beautiful way,'gg or about boys.
From that time on, I've apologized to the buddhas, saying, 'Permit me, please, this single [pleasure],' so up to now no one has condemned me. The idea that homosexuality the "beautiful way" serves as a reasonable and forgivable compromise between heterosexual involvements and complete sexual abstinence is also found in Kitamura Kigin's preface to Iwatsutsuji Rock Azaleasa collection of nanshoku-themed erotica authored around and published in "[T]he Buddha preached that Mr.
Imose [a euphemism for male-female sex] was a place to be avoided and thus priests of the law first entered this way as an outlet for their feelings, since their hearts were, after all, made of neither stone nor wood. The effort to justify male-male sexuality in Buddhist terms reached its height during the Tokugawa period, when writers as. Hotei, one of the Seven Gods of Happiness, relaxes with a young female-role actor. Okumura Masanobu print, ca. And for unclear reasons, the name "Daruma" Bodhidharma, the Indian Zen patriarch, who became a major figure in Japanese folklore came to be applied to male and female prostitutes Figure 4.
In Buddhist Japan, as in Christian Europe from the later medieval period, clerics were in theory denied all sexual outlets. But whereas in the West homosexuality was reckoned even worse. Woodblock print by Takeda Harunobu Tokugawa Period. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Source: H. As noted previously, the Buddhist faith is traditionally anti-female, and though the misogyny was in some ways mitigated in Japan, particularly in the early centuries after the introduction of the religion, by the medieval period Japanese Buddhism insisted upon women's inherently evil and defiling nature.
This increasingly negative view of women may simply have represented the traditional Buddhist strategy of discouraging monks from seeking sexual contact with the opposite sex.
But it may also have reflected institutional changes following the removal of the capital from Nara to Kyoto in Thereafter the court was particularly careful to keep the Buddhist establishment, which had earlier intervened with near-disastrous effects in politics, at arm's length. Women were banned from these sacred mountains. Monks of earlier periods had often resided in close proximity to lay folk, including women, but they now had fewer opportunities for the forbidden heterosexual contact.
Thus, they may have found it easier to vilify the sex to which they enjoyed so little exposure. But if sexual contact with women was regarded as debasing, sex with boys, if not a positive good, was regarded to use Kitamura's term as a tolerable "outlet for [monks'] feelings.
Thus, we have love-poems from the tenth century on addressed from monks to acolytes, and both the Konjaku monogatari Collection of tales old and new, early twelfth century and Uji shui monogatari between and contain tales that allude to pederastic relationships.
He comes to regret his decision, as the boy is less attractive in his new habit than before. He has the boy put on his old clothes and becomes sexually aroused, lamenting that he had ever made him a priest. A religious vowii from the same period, registered by a monk named Samon Shusei at the Todaiji Temple in Nara, also indicates widespread homosexual behavior in Buddhist monasteries.
Containing five resolutions, it was composed inwhen its author was thirty-six years old. Item: Having already fuckedjj ninety-five males, I will not behave wantonly with more than one hundred. Interestingly, the commitment to Ryuo-maru does not prevent this monk from allowing himself five more partners in the future.
The document ends with a pointed proviso that these vows arc limited to the present lifetime and do not apply to future incarnations. Clear references to male-male sex proliferated from the fourteenth century on. Monastic laws from the late Kamakura period and perhaps earlier suggest a concern about the disruptive effects of resident acolytes upon the contemplative life of the monks. One such reference occurs in a legal document issued by the Hojo regent, Sadatoki, to a Kamakura Zen monastery in In the shogun Yoshimasa even ordered a certain temple to confine a beautiful acolyte held responsible Album) monks' "unruliness,"nn Artistic and literary depictions of homosexual relationships also proliferated during the fourteenth century.
The Chigo no soshi Acolyte scrolla ribald masterpiece about priests and acolytes, appeared in and is now in the possession of Sanpoin Temple Figure 5. The first of what have been Album) chigo monogatari tales dealing with these monastic sexual relationships was written around and followed by seven other such works during the Muromachi period.
Kato Shuichi regards the development of "homosexual poetry and prose as one of the great contributions made by the Zen sect to the culture of Japan during the Muromachi period," citing the Shinden shiko of Shinden Shoben, the Ryusuishu of Tosho Shugen, and the San'eki Shik-o ca.
One of the Ryusuishu poems runs as follows:. Section from the ''Acolyte Scroll" Chigo no soshi, A manservant applies clove oil lubricant to an acolyte's anus. Painting in the possession of Sanpoin Temple. We passed the night in the same bed, And now looking at the pale moon at dawn through the window Our two shadows fall on the curtain A pair of mandarin ducks. I would celebrate the night's joy of love forever.
Our temple is like Kimshan Temple on the Yang-tse. This classical Japanese poem,oo as Kato suggests, is clearly on the theme of love, not lust. Other Muromachi literature, however, deals with pederasty in a cruder fashion. Yoshida Kenko's Tsure-zuregusa Idle writings, ca. Zen monks and their passion for acolytes. One Ikkyu poem begins, "Tired of nanshoku, I embrace my wifeqq Westerners first reached Japan in Their accounts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries contain numerous allusions to "sodomy" among the Buddhist clergy.
The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier returned the hospitality of some friendly Zen monks by railing against his startled hosts for their open indulgence in "the abominable vice of Sodom. The priests "are drawn to sins against nature and don't deny it, they acknowledge it openly. This evil, moreover, is so public, so clear to all, men and women, young and old.
The Jesuit Alessandro Valignano, in his Historia del Principio, noting the "great dissipation" of the Japanese "in the sin that does not bear mentioning," also singled out the Buddhist clergy for attack: "[T]he bonzes teach that not only is it not a sin but that it is even something quite natural and virtuous and to a certain extent reserve this practice for themselves. This legend was reported by Gaspar Vilela as early as Though emphasizing the Buddhist-homosexual link, however, the Western missionaries seem to have regarded homosexuality.
Valignano's Catechismus for Japanese converts ca. Westerners other than Roman Catholic missionaries also noted the prevalence of homosexual behavior in Japan. From all this material, we acquire some idea of the characteristics of monastic homosexuality. The typical relationship involved a monk and a boy serving as an acolyte or, in Zen monasteries, a postulant. Sometimes they were very young; among better-known religious figures, Honen and Shinran both entered at age nine, Ippenat ten, Eisai l5 and Nichiren lat twelve.
By the time he reached his teens, the boy may have developed a special relationship with an older monk, who would be referred to as the nenja. Such bonds resemble the qixiong-qidi relationships of Fujian, described previously, or the erastes-eramenos relationships of ancient Greece.
Because the ancient Greeks although not, apparently, the Chinese regarded oral sex between free men as an abomination and anal sex as an act that feminized and therefore derogated the passive partner, the eromenos was at least in theory never subjected to penetration and, by implication, to "feminization".
In Japan, as the Chigo no soshi makes plain, anal sex was the norm in monk-chigo relations, and the anal erogeneity of the insertee partner was even celebrated. I think this occurred just after the Ninnaji [Temple] had been built.
There was a venerable priest there, highly revered throughout the world. Influenced by the virtue of the Three Mysteries of the Dharma, his character and the effects of his incantations were renowned. Yet he was unable to abandon this Way [of sex with boys]. Although there were many beautiful youths around him, one in particular would lie with him in the most intimate fashion.
But the ability to perform [sexually] has nothing to do with one's piety. He had apparently indulged too much, and so could not perform sexually to the extent he would have liked. In his heart, he yearned to [have intercourse with the youth] in the manner that the arrow of Shinto pierces the roofed mud wall.
But his [penis] was like an arrow just brushing against the mountain [of the boy's buttocks]; penetration was out of the question. The boy, saddened by this, diligently prepared [himself] each night. He would summon beforehand a youth named Chuta, the son of his nurse. Up to this point Chuta would perform his services with complete diligence, but now his penis would be erect. He could not help but masturbate.
Finally [the boy] would be called to [the priest's] bed. Being old, [the priest] went to sleep early, so there was not much time to embrace the boy before he went to sleep.
Thus, without any delay, the old priest would insert his penis into the bottom of this boy who had prepared so well in advance. Such a sincerely devoted acolyte is without parallel.
One must regard him as a priceless human being. Several paintings accompany this text. One depicts Chuta preparing the boy for his liaison using the dildo. The manservant is himself naked and in a state of sexual excitement. The captions translate as follows:. Chuta: This is hard to endure. You don't go [to the priest] until later, just before he retires. Do you really need me to perform this service for you already, while it's still afternoon?
You're much too early. Chuta: Since I perform this service every night, I sometimes think, "Enough already! It's too much. You can't understand my feelings. You're insensitive. This time I'd like real satisfaction. Chuta: I guess it can't be helped, can it? My thing gets erect, and there's nothing to do but masturbate. So my penis gets weak, and my wife reviles me.
I'll endure it, though, and help you out. This smells good. You're very fond of your bottom, aren't you? Before you go to the honorable priest, I wonder if you'd let me stick my penis in. The "sincerely devoted acolyte" is not, after all, entirely faithful to the old priest. The next illustration shows the manservant apply. In homosexual relationships of this type, the boys appear often to have served as surrogates for the females absent from the lives of the monks.
Various Tokugawa-period jokesxx indicate the conflation of boys and women, and of the anus and vagina, in monastic society. In one, a priest on a religious retreat asks a friend to make him an onyake artificial leather anus for use in lieu of a boy. But he adds the request that it taste like a vagina. Some monks during the medieval period "shaved [their chigos'] eyebrows, powdered their faces, [and] dressed them in female garb.
During this period he wears cosmetics, wears his hair up in a girlish bun, blackens his teeth, and thinly pencils in lines over his shaven eyebrows.
Similarly, when his beautiful wife is disguised as an acolyte, she is told, "It will seem natural for you to wear cosmetics. Although the boys looked rather like girls, they were not trained to imitate female behavior as were, for example, onnagata in the kabuki theater of later centuries. Their speech was quite different from that of young women, and they cultivated arts such as flute playing that were regarded as exclusively masculine pursuits.
Nevertheless, one must associate the evolution of the chigo role with the absence of women in the lives of the monks. Sono choji-yu o fude de toto to somete, go sun bakari hineri ireyo five sun equals six inches xx. Given the tenuousness of Japanese ties to the more homophobic traditions of continental Buddhism and the apparent absence of any indigenous taboo against male-male sexual contact, it is not surprising that the Japanese monastic environment should have produced such a highly developed and articulated homosexual culture.
Once firmly established in a country whose elites had decisively embraced Buddhism in the ancient period, this culture was bound to influence lay society. The courtly age-structured homosexuality discussed earlier may well have been patterned on the priest-chigo relationships. And the sexual relationships among males in the martial or samurai class unquestionably came to be modeled in part on the traditions of monks and courtiers.
The samurai, who during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries gradually came to dominate the country, had far fewer members during this period than the Buddhist clergy. Whereas the latter must have numbered in the hundreds of thousands, the military class constituted perhaps 6, men out of a population of seven million in about A.
Perhaps military, like monastic, society is by its very nature conducive to the formation of male-male sexual relationships. In given historical societies, the military emphasis on physical cultivation, as preparation for the battlefield, easily has led to glorification of the muscular male physique, such as one finds both in the homoerotic sculpture of ancient Greece or the work of such sculptors as Unkei and Kaikei in Kamakura Japan Public celebration of the male body in art may even influence the construction of sexual desire.
Such military values as group solidarity, loyalty under conditions of extreme stress, and unquestioning obedience to authority might in some situations induce military men to engage in sex with one another and even to develop distinctive homosexual traditions. The problem can only be investigated in the context of the specific cultural and ideological environments surrounding such military societies.
It has been suggested that feudalism may encourage homosexual desire and behavior. Women's status declined with the evolution of feudalism; in the Japanese case, the system of primogeniture came to be applied from the fourteenth century and removed women from prestigious military and administrative positions they had sometimes held earlier.
Strong men's traits, which represent the ability to survive in unstable conditions, may have acquired erotic significance to women and men alike. A samurai treatise of the early Tokugawa period described nanshoku as "something both agreeable and disagreeable" because "[t]o throw away one's life [for one's male lover] is the ultimate aim of shudo. Otherwise it becomes something shameful. But then one has no life to give in service to one's lordso it is both agreeable and disagreeable.
But the lord-retainer relationship itself often assumed an erotic character. This was not because the samurai universally embraced a code of honor inclining them toward unconditional loyalty to and love for their masters. Indeed, the best recent work on the early samurai emphasizes the conditional and self-serving character of samurai service.
Jesuit missionaries in sixteenth-century Japan, far from describing the samurai as faithful, dependable vassals, depict them as back-stabbers who "rebel Though it might have been observed in the breach, however, military society produced an exacting system Drag The River - Disciples Of Agriculture - Disciples Of Agriculture (CD values.
One of the most important elements in this system was the idea that loyalty to one's lord overrode loyalty to one's wife and children and even the obligations to one's parents. This, indeed, is one of the most significant Japanese modifications of Chinese Confucianism. From the fourteenth century it was commonly held that "[t]he relationship of parent and child is for one existence [i.
There is ample evidence that some military men took such beliefs very seriously, selflessly struggling, for example, to reestablish masters' houses after their apparent annihilation by enemy forces. Such mens' feelings for their lords would have ranged from mere willingness to follow orders and obediently fight on their behalf and follow orders what might be called "cold duty" to a genuinely passionate devotion "warm duty".
Lords receiving the latter would be expected to reciprocate with affectionate attentive-ness to their vassals' well-being. The erotic connotations of the idealized lord-vassal relationship are illustrated in the famous tale Chushingura The treasury of loyal retainerswhich, though written during the early eighteenth century, reflects values that had been celebrated in samurai society for centuries. Popular in various dramatic interpretations penned by bourgeois rather than samurai writers since the mid-Tokugawa period, the story is based on an episode that occurred in Because even unsheathing one's sword in the palace was a capital crime, the daimyo is ordered to commit seppuku, or ritual suicide.
Forty-seven of his retainers then embark on an elaborate scheme to exact vengeance; a year later, they track down their master's foe, kill him, present his head before their master's shrine, then disembowel themselves. In single-minded pursuit of their aim, the conspirators do not hesitate to exploit or abandon their wives and children. Their sole aim is to requite their master's kindness by avenging his death. Although heterosexual love is depicted in the best-known puppet-play version of the story it is shown as a sometimes tragic impediment to retainers' feudal duties.
In the most moving scene in the play, the unfortunate lord, having. Informed that he has not appeared, the lord expresses his sorrow that he "won't be seeing him again in this life.
It's hard to leave him. But there's no helping it. I can wait no longer. Just as the doomed man plunges his dagger into his abdomen, his chief retainer rushes into the room. In Japan there is no love story comparable in popularity to [Chushingura]. Men so much in.
I think that if he were involved to such an extent in this kind of man-to-man relation there would seem to be no necessity for a love affair with a woman. His emotions would be completely expended in his devotion to his master. I suspect this was the real nature of the Samurai mentality. Doi Takeo, a prominent Japanese psychiatrist, has also noted the homoerotic character of lord-vassal relationships depicted in kabuki dramas. Doi closely identifies this dependence with homosexual feelings "in the broad sense," which, he maintains, remain far stronger in Japan than in the West.
Samurai attitudes toward sex would have been influenced not only by the idealized lord-vassal relationship or by the institutionalized devaluation of women. The existence of a pervasive monastic homosexual tradition would surely have encouraged warriorswho generally respected the Buddhist clergy and embraced many of their valuesto regard the role-structured homosexuality practiced by the monks with particular tolerance and sympathy.
They would then incorporate elements of that tradition into their own evolving culture. Boys of samurai status often received education in monasteries and forged "brotherly bonds" with monks.
Boys serving as. As Ota Kinjo noted in''During the time the country was at war [ca. With the restoration of peace to the country after the Battle of Sekigaharathe object of sexual desire gradually shifted from the young soldier-in-training to the more effeminate boy-attendant.
A picture scroll emdki of the Kyoho period painted by Miyakawa Choshun vividly conveys the homosexual atmosphere such boys lent a contemporary samurai mansion. A high-ranking samurai, his son, and an entourage of twenty-eight servants and retainers are shown getting ready for an outing.
Among the group is a youth dressed in female clothing, attended in his toilet by two other boys who are also seductively dressed and coiffured. A samurai in the center of the scene seems to gaze at these two boys. To their left, seated upon the stage, another youth is having his hair dressed in the fashionable Shimada style popular with courtesans.
The attendant standing next to him wears the purple scarf of a kabuki actor. Near them another group centers around a boy who is choosing his kimono for the day, and at the left some other boys prepare tea. There is not one female in the painting. Biographical materials often refer to great men's involvements with youths and "beloved retainers. Warlords such as Hosokawa Masamoto ; Hosokawa TakakuniHosokawa FujitakaTakeda ShingenOda NobunagaToyotomi HideyoshiToyotomi Hashiba HidetsuguUesugi KenshinMaeda ToshiieFukushima MasanoriOgasawara Hidemasaand the great swordsman Miyamoto Musashi are all known to have engaged in sex with boys.
The relationship between Takeda Shingen and his lover Kosaka Masanobu or Danjo, is particularly well documented. Kosaka became one of the top generals in Takeda's army. Although he commanded the rearguard forces that rescued his lord at the Battle of Kawanakajima inhe owed his post, his opponents charged, less to his martial skills than to his sexual connection to the daimyo. The relationship is recorded in their contract, written and co-signed inwhen Shingen was twenty-two and his partner, then named Kasuga Gensuke, sixteen.
The text, which is preserved in Tokyo University's Historical Archive,aaa alludes to a third person with whom despite his denials Shingen seems to have had a sexual relationship:. Item: Although I have sometimes said to Yashichiro, "Let's have sex,"bbb he has refused me, saying, "I'm having stomach problems and am not feeling well. Item: Yashichiro has never slept with me as my attendant in bed.
To date, that has never happened. Not only have I never had sex. Especially now, I have no thought of having sex with him. Item: Since I want to become intimate with you, from now on if you have any doubts about these things, I want you to understand that I do not plan to hurt you. If I should ever break these promises, may I receive the divine punishment of the Great Myoshin of the First, Second, and Third Shrines of the province of Kai, Mount Fuji and Shirayama, and particularly Hachiman Bosatsu, and all the higher and lower deities.
Apparently Gensuke was jealous of Yashichiro and pressed Shingen for such a written promise. The documenta nice specimen of the "brotherhood contract"suggests the seriousness with which both parties entered into nanshoku relationships.
Such documents are quite rare. As in the case of the Han emperors or Koryo kings, the great man's homosexual activities enter the historical record because they have some relevance to his public behaviorhis distribution of gifts, lands, and offices. Thus, we know Yoritomo made his young lover, Yoshinao, an officer in the Imperial Guard and that Takauji lavished valuable swords on his boy. Major scandals and vendettas at the highest level can sometimes be traced to nanshoku infatuations overthrowing political judgment.
Ashikaga Yoshimochi provoked rebellion by offering vast lands to his lover Akamatsu Mochisada, and his brother Yoshinori was slain in over his effort to similarly reward his own bedmate, Akamatsu Sadamura. The second Tokugawa shogun, Hidetada, ordered his page and lover Koyama Nagato to commit seppuku in as punishment for Nagato's sexual affair with Naruse, the lord of Bungo. Such tales have survived because these relationships were relevant to politics. No doubt a myriad of tales about male- male love involving no scandal, murderous vendetta, or colossal misjudgment were simply forgotten soon after the principals died.
Representing no exceptional or aberrant behavior, they did not become the stuff of historical chronicles. Although we know next to nothing about the popular view of nanshoku, the historical record left by the literate strata of society suggests that most people would have inquired not why a given man had taken male lovers but rather why he had not done so. Let us conclude our discussion of pre-Tokugawa traditions of nanshoku by placing them in global perspective.
Two general types of male-male sexual behavior widely occur in preclass societies: age-structured and gender- structured. The second involves the establishment of a specific homosexual role, such as that of the cross-dressing shaman, whose adherents may serve as insertee partners for interested men.
The Sambia of Melanesia provide one example of the first type; among them, all boys are required to fellate older males on the theory that without the ingestion of semen they will not attain adulthood. Among the Dorians of ancient Crete, ritualistic kidnapping and homosexual seduction of youths by older men constituted a rite of passage.
Elsewhere, specific homosexual roles were constructed, to be fulfilled by a small number of specific males, often cross-dressers. In the ancient Near East, for example, male temple-prostitutes or cross-dressing eunuch priests performed the insertee role with male patrons.
In pre-Tokugawa Japan, age-structured homosexuality flourished in monastic and military society. There was apparently no designated social role for the man who performed the insertee role throughout his life, but the youthful partner in male-male relationships was often like the berdache or hijra obliged to assume a feminine or androgynous appearance.
Surely this tendency to feminize the younger partner resulted from the absence of women in the contexts that produced the first homosexual traditions. The first developed tradition of nanshoku in Japan was that of the Buddhist monasteries.
We cannot explain the monk-chigo relationship solely as the result of "situational" sexual behavior, for some individuals may have taken holy orders in part because they preferred an all-male environment and its sexual opportunities. Heterosexual desire was evident in the construction of sexual objects made up, coiffured, and dressed much like women. The emergence of the samurai nanshoku tradition can also be explained in part by the relative absence of women in martial society.
During long military campaigns, warriors might become sexually attracted to young attendants and boys undergoing martial. Ranking warriors might retain beautiful youths for sexual purposes, dressing them not as females but in conspicuously elegant, nonmartial attire. Thus, we find in Japan on the eve of the early modern period two homosexual traditions that 1 emerged largely as the result of the lack of women; 2 were age-structured and seen as contributing to the younger partners' education or maturation; and 3 often required the younger partner to assume a female-like or androgynous appearance.
These traditions were practiced by respected elites and legitimated by the strength of the Chinese tradition and by the Kukai myth. With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate and the subsequent growth of large towns and cities, a third, bourgeois nanshoku tradition emerged.
Although males initially outnumbered females in urban environments, the homosexual culture they created owed as much to the enduring strength of the earlier traditions as to the undersupply of women. Aware of monastic and samurai traditions, men of common status in the Tokugawa period would naturally have regarded homosexual desire as normal and male-male sex as a permissible and attractive activity.
Actors playing young men often received larger salaries than those playing women. At that time, shudo was all the rage in all the quarters of the town. Tominaga Heibei, Kei kagami, early eighteenth century. The period between and marks a watershed in Japanese history. During these three and a half decades, a nation that had been divided for more than two centuries into numerous warring feudal units was reunited under a form of central rule. Three great warlords in succession achieved this reunification: Oda NobunagaToyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu Each of these men understood the central conflicts in Japanese society and in their attempts to deal with them produced radical, far-reaching changes.
Not all of their policies are pertinent to our topic, but onetheir effort to rein in the great majority of samurai and sever their links to the peasantrywas of extraordinary importance. It led to the rapid growth of castle-towns and to the emergence of a huge bourgeoisie with a lively culture of its own.
This class developed a new nanshoku tradition quite distinct from the monastic or samurai traditions. For the merchants. Sunday, December 12, John Lennon As a consequence of the Obama recession, I've found myself obliged to put in the occasional 16 hour work day.
By occasional, I mean two or three days a week. Naturally, while working these 16 hour days, I've had little time or inclination to write posts for this blog.
Had I not been working this schedule, I might very well have written something on John Lennon commemorating the 30th anniversary of his death on December 8th. Perhaps that's just as well; I have long since lost any love or admiration I may have once had for the late celebrity. In a previous post [ Goo Goo Ga Joob. The Beatle's recording of the song was the brain child of producer George Martin; Lennon could never had done the song in a live performance as Zappa had done.
Zappa's treatment is especially ironic considering the bad blood between Zappa and Lennon over John and Yoko's "performing" I use that term loosely with the Mothers of Invention at the Fillmore East in Adding insult to injury, Lennon took writing credit for Zappa's King Kong which Zappa had previously recorded on his album fromUncle Meat. I know my low opinion of John Lennon is not a popular one True, the music of the Beatles was an important influence, back in the day.
Hopefully, as we grow older, we also grow as individuals. I've gone from being in awe of the Fab Four, to indifference, to downright hostility to much of what John Lennon represented.
His assassination was, indeed a tragedy. However, over the years I've come to believe that, had a poll been taken during the Beatles' heyday, which asked the question, "Which Beatle do you believe is the one most likely to be assassinated? One Week Later. Thanks to a throw-away post - Al Gore sues Angeles Duran for Damages - the number of visitors to my blog has skyrocketed. The week before that post - November 19 to November 26 - the blog had received visits from cities worldwide.
Now, one week later, the number of hits from November 27 when the piece was posted until today, December 4, the total has reached visits from cities. I've used Google Analytics to track down different websites that have linked to the post. I'm including a screen shot of one such link from the olympicpost. According to wikipedia, Trondheim is the "historic Viking capital of Norway". Oh, yeah Saturday, December 4, Ixchell, my Belle Readers of this blog are well aware that I am of a lover of parody and satire.
My recent posts on the Al Gore lawsuit and Denmark joining said lawsuit are testament that I'm not above pulling a proverbial leg from time to time. However, this story is not a parody. Truth is, after all, really stranger than fiction. Ixchell is goddess of midwifery and medicine as well as tapestry and the moon. Just what any of this has to do with global warming is anybody's guess. In a breaking story that can only be found on Internet News Network I. As usual, I'm providing a link to the I.
On Saturday, after reading the story of Angeles Duran - the Spanish woman who has laid claims of ownership to the Sun - I wrote a short little goof piece entitled Al Gore sues Angeles Duran for Damages. When I noticed that the post was getting an enormous amount of hits enormous for me I put together an "I. It was fun going to Google Analytics and checking out the increased traffic, but when I discovered that my post had been taken seriously by someone at China Daily.
The link will go to the story at the Chinese website I'm not making this up. I've taken a screenshot of a portion of the page just in case it disappears. In less than 36 hours, my humble little blog post has received nearly visits from more than cities in 70 countries. That's pretty amazing for a blog that usually gets about 60 visits in a 24 hour period. Thanks, Al. You never know Yesterday, after reading about Angeles Duran and her claim to be owner of the Sun, I did a silly little post on Al Gore filing a lawsuit against her due to damage caused by Global Warming.
I didn't spend a lot of time or thought on the idea. Little did I know the reaction that little piece would have. The image on the left is a snip of maps showing the location of visitors to the post Googling keyword like angeles duran or angeles duran al gore and al gore has filed a law suit against the woman for damages caused by global warming and my blog ranks high on the list. I'm not quite so sure why anyone would have googled "al gore has filed a law suit against the woman for damages caused by global warming" but, evidently someone thought to do just that.
I wish there was some way to take advantage of the increased traffic. You just never know what's going to attract readers. Update: After giving it some thought, I did an I. Hours after learning of Angeles Duran's claim of ownership of the Sunformer Vice President, Al Gore has filed a law suit against the woman for damages caused by global warming. She can't hide the money that easily. Sunowner, Angeles Duran could not be reached for comment on Gore's lawsuit.
One month after arresting Pakistani-born U. Let's see Muslim jihadists, attempting to commit terrorist acts. Note to Janet Napolitano and Barack Obama - neither one traveled by air. That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks, for his kind care and protection of the People of this country previous to their becoming a Nation, for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his providence, which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war, for the greatest degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed, for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.
And also that we may then unite Album) most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions, to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually, to render our national government a blessing to all the People, by constantly being a government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed, to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations especially such as have shown kindness unto us and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord.
To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and Us, and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.
Ruth Marcus to America, "Grow Up! She admits that the "pat-downs" are intrusive, but she assures us that we might not have to submit to the groping if we agree to simply walk through the "souped-up screeners". Besides, she writes, " So now, with the present administration, this Constitutional Right to Privacy is abandoned for the sake of national security. We must, she tells us, put up with any inconvenience and the lack of privacy because Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab had been able to board a plane with explosives in his underwear.
To the best of my knowledge, Amsterdam does not use the same intrusive security procedures that the TSA uses. Our security methods would only catch would be terrorists already in the USA. I don't understand the government's obsession with airplanes. A terrorist in this country can travel anywhere he chooses by car. Anyone hellbent of terrorizing the citizens of our nation could do more damage to our national psyche by killing 20 people at 2 different Walmarts than by killing in a plane flying from one American city to another.
How long before we can look forward to being subjected to "pat-downs" and "souped-up screeners" before we can enter a theater, subway or football stadium? She was wrong about the Tea Party as well. Obama's approval rating is the lowest it's ever been. The brouhaha over airport security certainly won't bring his rating back up. Friday, November 19, Hurts Car Rental? Responding to complaints over body scanners and genital groping by the TSA, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano said "if people want to travel by some other means," they have that right.
I suppose Napolitano is asking terrorists to follow the lead of Timothy McVeigh and rent a vehicle rather than fly. Gives new meaning to the idea of "Hertz car Rental". Reading Richard Cohen's rant on tobacco today, [ The faces behind tobacco's deadly addiction ] I have to wonder how long it's been since he smoked his last cigarette.
He admits to being a former smoker, but his piece in the Washington Post demonstrates that he is still very much addicted to the drug. Cohen still misses " Sorry, Richard, but your mind just isn't right. Cohen goes on to say, "We former smokers are an intolerant lot.
We are motivated by regret and rage. We have been suckered and sucker-punched, lied to repeatedly and fooled in our juvenile years into taking a course that we can only partly remedy. Speak for yourself, Mr Cohen. Why be motivated by "regret and rage"? It's really pointless to be angry with Louis C. Camilleri, Richard Burrows, Daniel M.
Delen or the other tobacco industry big-wigs you name in your article First of all, the guys you rave about are all younger than you and were probably only a glimmer in their father's eye when you took up the nasty habit. You can't even blame the tobacco executives who were around when you started - they're more than likely dead now any way - but the responsibility for your having started in the first place rests firmly on your shoulders.
Depending on how old you were when you started, part of the blame might be put upon your parents. Cohen goes on to suggest that, rather than put the new, more graphic warnings on cigarette packs, the government should require that photos of tobacco executives be used on the warnings instead.
How about we track down all the folks holding tobacco company stocks and put their photos on cigarette packs as well? I agree with Cohen that anyone involved in the selling of cigarettes in perfectly despicable I'm thinking that there may be a special corner in Hell reserved for them, but seriously, Mr Cohen, you're still carrying this addiction around in your head and you need to just drop it.
You may have been "suckered and sucker-punched, lied to repeatedly" but it was you lying to yourself. Monday, November 15, Because you asked:. In a comment from yesterday's post, Al asked if I could post a recent photo of JP to compare with the photo I posted of him when he was newborn.
OK, here's one from a couple of months ago. Sunday, November 14, Happy 5th Birthday, J. One of the first photos of J. Happy 5th birthday,son. OK, I admit it; I am not a fan of professional football. I have no interest in watching millionaires play ball.
I will, on occasion, watch college football - particularly if I think there's a chance I can see Alabama getting beat. Being unfamiliar with "the Super Bowl halftime alternative television special called the Lingerie Bowl"I was totally unaware of the Lingerie Football League LFL until I came across a news story telling how Oklahoma City Mayor Mick Cornett was against the idea of the league bringing a franchise to his city.
I never said that I wouldn't allow it. I've always felt that my post are more interesting with visuals, so I'm including a screenshot from one of the videos; it wasn't easy deciding which screenshot to use. Sure, the game was interesting I just can't remember the final score or which team won. It's amazing how two individuals can look at the same event yet come up with two completely contradictory opinions regarding the meaning of that event.
I'm referring to Washington Post writer, E. Dionne and Ann Coulter and their different understanding as to what transpired on November 2nd. Dionne looked at the recent election - and the drubbing received by the Democrats - and came to the conclusion that the electorate wants the Democrats to continue their attempt to drag the country further to the Left.
Dionne wrote of the election, when "the largest number of voters in American history gave the Democrats their largest share of the presidential vote in 44 years and big majorities in the House and Senate" and concluded that we, as a nation, really do want to live in the world as envisioned by Obama.
Unlike CoulterDionne hasn't caught on that the election results came from a disproportionate number of air-headed 18 to 26 year old children voting for "Obama as a fashion statement". Contrariwise, the election was the product of mature, clear thinking, tax paying adults taking back control of the country. Thankfully, it's normally difficult to get the young to vote With many of the young disillusioned with Obama, the children that put him into office stayed home this past November.
Dionne wants the Democrats to hold their ground. Don't give in to the Republicans, he says. In spite of the fact that the recent Republican victory was massive in scope - on the State and Federal levels - Dionne is convinced that the GOP is made up of extremists who do not represent the American people.
I hope he gets his wish. I hope that the Democrats continue to show us exactly what they believe and the direction in which they want to take us. Democrats holding their ground will bring about further loses for them in Wednesday, November 10, Photo shop of the Day.
My idea Monday, November 8, Olbermann Unfired. From the New York Times via boston. Sounds a bit like a publicity stunt to yours truly. Saturday, November 6, Olbermann Fired. One would have thought that Olbermann would have been exempt from this ban on the grounds of his not being a journalist. The Washington Post article writes, "The revelation of Olbermann's contributions -- first reported by Politico -- means that the anchor was leading on-air coverage of races in which he had privately picked favorites.
The same Washington Post piece writes, "The policy cautions the network's journalists against taking part in activities that might create an appearance of conflict of interest.
Is donating money to Democrats really any different than what Olbermann and his ilk do anyway? Movie Review. With the help of xtranormal. After viewing the video, I went to xtranormal. It gets my vote for the next Academy Awards. Wednesday, November 3, For the Liberal who has Everything.
In yesterday's post I linked to an article at Slate. Last Man Standing? In a piece on Slate. Oh, Lord, I hope so. Sunday, October 31, Restoring Sanity with Boredom? I'm not, by any stretch of the imagination, a fan of either Jon Stewart or Stephen Colbert.
If I would describe the rally in one word, that word would be "boring". Colbert played his part as over the top, Right Wing Crazy, with typical Liberal lameness. I'm sure High School intellectuals were highly amused.
For his part, Stewart's "I'm so effing reasonable " persona reeked of condescension. Dating Profile. Is online dating easier for single female expats in Germany than for their male counterparts? Dating Tips. Register Login Language: English en. Register to contact people from your country living in Germany just like you!
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