Music lovers of the time went wild about this very visual sort of music, in which a complete orchestra and a small group of soloists played a game of questions and answers, launching ideas at each other and trying to surpass one another in original elaborations.
This opus earned Corelli a name as father of the concerto grosso, even though he did not invent it. The volume probably contains music written many years before. The eighth concerto has became world-famous: Corellis concerto fatto per la notte di Natale made for Christmas Eve.
As a soloist he played with many orchestras. He taught violin, chamber music, history and art history at several schools and conservatories. He wrote a study on the history of violin playing. She studied the violin at Tohogakuen Music School in Tokyo.
During her study she became interested in period instruments and started to play the baroque violin and came to The Netherlands in to study with Lucy van Dael at The Royal Conservatory in The Hague. She performed in many recordings and concerts in Europe, Australia and Japan, as a solo player and in chamber music.
Recently she became leader with The Netherlands Bachsociety Orchestra. In she also started the successful miso factory Ken-Ran with her husband. Mozart, and most recently Telemanns Tafelmusik. Website: www. He has made many CD-recordings, most of them solo and chamber music productions. Whereas Bach was a church musician in an important but provincial German town teaching counterpoint to a devoted band of diligent pupils, Couperin worked as a court musician in that fashion capitol of the 18th century, Versailles, where he taught aristocrats to play the harpsichord and performed weekly for the King himself.
Bach was famed for his astounding virtuosity and for his difficult and complex compositions, while Couperin was a known as a trend-setter, the creator of a chic, refined and elegant style where virtuosity was hidden under a shining veneer of good taste.
Bach married within his class and raised a small army of children on a cantors salary, Couperin married well, was ennobled and enjoyed the highest success and admiration. And yet in spite of these differences there are many essential similarities between the two composers: both were famous keyboard players whose compositions bear the stamp of their own preferred instruments, both excelled in church and chamber music in an age when opera reigned supreme, and both strove to unite the best elements of the national musical styles of the day into one superlative musical language, which Couperin referred to as the got-rni.
Perhaps it is this strange mix of conjunctions and oppositions that makes possible contact between, and the mutual influence of, Bach and Couperin such an attractive idea. The chimerical correspondence of one brilliant composer to another, destined, so the legend goes, to serve as jam jar covers, retains its hold on our imaginations: what could they have said to one another? What would Couperin, the cosmopolitan Parisian, have thought of Bachs Teutonic music?
What Bach thought of Couperins music is easier to imagine; for we have pieces by Couperin copied out by members of his circle, as well as his pupil Gerbers claim that Bachs playing style was influenced by the Frenchmans music. Nor was Bach the only composer to learn from the French master, Telemann was clearly influenced by him they shared a healthy sense of humor and expressed it musically as well and it seems impossible that some of Handels compositions do not also bear traces of Couperins style.
If, then, Couperin was esteemed enough to influence three of the most famous composers of the 18th century, one would assume that an abundance of details about his life and personality would have survived. This, however, is not the case and the essentials of his history are quickly told. Born in into a family of organists, he inherited his fathers position at St.
Gervais in Paris in In he became organiste de la Chapelle du Roy. In he officially became ordinaire de la musique de la chambre du Roi pour le clavecin, although he had certainly been an active participant in the royal chamber music before that.
Inhaving already published a considerable amount of keyboard music, he for the first time published chamber pieces, the Concerts royaux. These were followed by the Gots-rnis in According to Couperin himself, these pieces were originally composed for small chamber concerts to which Louis XIV bade me come almost every Tuesday of the year. Together in the same volume with the Gots-runis he published his tribute to Corelli, a programmatic grande Sonade en Trio entitled Le Parnasse.
The sequel to this, his even more ambitious and theatrical tribute to the greatest man of Music, that the last century produced the Concert Instrumental sous le titre dApotheose compos la mmoire immortelle de lincomparable Monsieur de Lully, appeared a year later. In he published two superb suites of Pieces for viola da gamba, his last chamber works. These volumes, together with three sonatas preserved in manuscript and probably written in the late 17th century La Sultanne, La Superbe and La Steinquerqueform all the chamber music from Couperins hand that has come down to us.
In Couperin resigned his court posts due to failing health. He died in The differences in style between Couperins early period the Italianized sonatas in Les Nations, for example and his later works for instance the Concert Instrumental is enormous.
Although his early attempts to master the Italian style certainly resulted in masterpieces La Sultannehis mature style flows miraculously, seamlessly, between French and Italian influences creating a new musical language that is pure Couperin. For example the Sicilinemovements in Les Gots-rnis owe as much to the French musette as they do to the Italian siciliano, but in their suave melancholy and expressive harmonies they reveal unequivocally the hand of their creator.
However, in spite of this new and mixed musical language, Couperin could still compose in a purely French or Italian style if he wished: the dances of Les Nations, masterpieces in which expression and form are one and the same as in the works of his great countryman Racineare Frenchier than French, while the duet in the Concert Instrumental in which Lully plays second fiddle to Corelli sounds purely Italian. What can be a greater proof of the composers technical control than this ability to modify the thickness of the accent with which he wished to speak?
Couperin gives few indications for the instrumentation of his chamber music, and these mostly have the character of suggestions. For our recording Les Nations we chose that of Charpentiers Sonate pour 2 fltes allemandes, 2 dessus de violon, une basse de viole, une basse de violon 5 cordes, un clavecin et un torbe, and for the other pieces we occasionally added piccolos, oboes and bassoon to spice the basic batter.
The tempi on this recording are all based on contemporary metronome indications for French dance and theatre music; some tempi Pompe Funbre, Le Rossignol-en-Amour, the boures may seem fast, but before condemning them the listener is kindly requested to take a careful look at the historical evidence. Similarly, marked freedom of tempo is prescribed by Rameau on more than one occasion as being essential to the French style; those who believe that rubato belongs firmly in the 19th century should read the requisite passages in the Code de la musique, Observations sur notre instinct pour la musique and the Erreurs sur la musique dans lEncyclopdie.
And for those who are surprised to see the words gavote and gavotte used on the same recording, the unusual spelling and accentuation of the titles reflects that used in the original sources.
We felt it would be ungrateful of us to wag our finger at genius; as far as we are concerned, Couperin, having presented us with so many beautiful pieces, may call them what he pleases. Many are the folk who deserve heart-felt thanks for their help with this project: Job ter Haar for suggesting and Pieter van Winkel for supporting the idea, Annelies van Os for taking it apart and Peter Arts for putting it together, Wilbert Hazelzet, Gerhard Kowalewsy and Kate Clark for the lending of instruments, and, most especially, all my colleagues for the playing of them.
Jed Wentz. Jed Wentz Jed Wentz has been involved with early music since the s as a performer, teacher, researcher and lecturer. He received a soloist diploma from the Royal Conservatory in the Hague after studying with Barthold Kuijken, was a member of Musica Antiqua Koln for nearly 10 years and has performed with major forces in early music like The Gabrielli Consort and Les Musiciens du Louvre.
For the last 10 years he has led Musica ad Rhenum, with whom he has recorded 20 CDs, two of which were awarded the prestigious Cini Prize Venice.
With Musica ad Rhenum he has explored not only 18th-century chamber music but also religious and theatrical vocal music, most recently having recorded 5 Mozart operas which were received with enthusiasm in the international press.
He teaches at the Conservatory of Amsterdam. Musica ad Rhenum Musica ad Rhenum was founded in and has performed as a chamber music ensemble and a baroque orchestra throughout Europe, as well as in North and South America, recorded more than 20 CDs several of which have been awarded prizesand recently performed operas by Mozart and Handel.
The groups perfoming style stems from the musicians conviction that the 18th-century audience was at least as lively and emotional as the audience of today; our experience of Baroque music now should be as fresh and envigorating as theirs was then. So, while avoiding anacronisms of style, Musica ad Rhenum hopes to communicate directly with the listener by using the rhetoric and aesthetics of the 18th century.
As Dryden put it, they strive to follow nature, not on foot, but mounted on the back of winged Pegasus. CD 13 S.
Ganassi - D. Diego Ortiz Toledo, ca. The madrigal Io vorei Dio damore by Silvestro Ganassi is one of the very few examples - if not the only one in which a vocal monody is accompanied by a solo viola da gamba.
The brief work is thus valuable both as a historical document and for its musical charm, and deserves special attention.
The vocal part, possibly the upper voice of a pre-existing madrigal, is accompanied by the viola, which provides a sonorous carpet consisting primarily of double and occasionally triple stops. Indeed, Ganassi in his treatise explicitly asks that one avoid fuller chords; evidently his sound ideal was still based on the sustained notes of the lira da braccio with its almost flat bridge, and he was bothered by broken chords played with the bow.
In this work, Ganassi requires the player to perform certain acrobatics on even the last frets of the low strings, especially in passages where the viola briefly imitates the upper voice. These passages do not, however, suffice to remove the impression of an essentially monodic compositional style, which to us - rich in our knowledge of music history - almost seems to anticipate the advent of the thorough bass.
This impression is even stronger in the ricercares of Diego Ortiz, both in the nine pieces sopra tenores italiani and above all in the six ricercares sopra canti piani which the composer easily identified with the bass of la Spagna. Indeed, while the harpsichord accompaniment of the tenor is carefully written out by Ortiz in four-voice chords, that of la Spagna consists merely of a bass line with the instructions to accompany it with consonances and some counterpoint which is suitable to the ricercare played by the viola a clear and concise description of the practice of playing basso continuo!
The simplicity of the accompaniment, the reduction of the function of the harpsichord to harmonic support and, finally, the repetition of the structure, gave Ortiz both the melodic and rhythmic freedom to develop the upper voice entrusted to the viola. To present anew a known and loved composition perhaps even too familiar blurring its outlines in order to give it a new look and a new shine: this is the underlying desire behind the embellishment or ornamentation of a madrigal.
It is Ortiz desire in his treatment of two works by Arcadelt and Sandrin, respectively, chosen among the most popular of the time. The fact that both O felici occhi miei and Doulce Memoire were wellknown to contemporary listeners is evident by their appearance in numerous reprints, citations and parodies. Todays listener may find it difficult to follow simultaneously both the polyphony of the madrigal and the embellishments of Ortiz ricercares.
We have, nonetheless, thought it useful to precede the latter with the original version of the madrigals, reconstructing, so to speak, the historical memory which lies at the root of this practice.
With these eight ricercares on previously composed works, Ortiz becomes a starting point for the entire school of viola da gamba playing in Italy: the divisions on madrigals and canzonas will, in fact, constitute the only Italian solo literature specifically dedicated to this instrument. And, considering that divisions were almost always entrusted to the extemporary improvisation of the virtuoso, these works are also among the few printed testimonies of this practice.
The ricercares for solo viola by Ganassi are unquestionably more demanding from a technical point of view, especially those of the Lettione seconda, that is, the second part of his treatise. Notated for the most part in tablature, they go up to number XIV high Eand make ample use of double stops.
In short, they suggest an already advanced level of technique on the instrument which is here investigated and exploited in all its nuances. Ortiz, too, declares a similar intention with his four ricercares for solo viola when he writes: I have written these four ricercares which follow freely and independently in order to exercise the hand.
The treatises by Ganassi and Ortiz are clearly didactic in purpose, but it is their musical content which makes them unique and invaluable to our knowledge of the history of renaissance music. They constitute not only the earliest musical collections dedicated entirely to the viola da gamba, but they also provide some of the earliest examples of music dedicated to a specific instrument, and thus initiate that trend of specialization which will spur the development of instrumental compositions in general.
Finally, Ganassi and Ortiz are among the few composers who during the Cinquecento set down on paper the products of a performance practice which was essentially and intimately improvisational, and therefore transmitted in words and music the practice which, according to Castiglione, was most suited to a courtier of good judgement.
Bettina Hoffmann translation: Candace Smith. CD 14 Francesco Geminiani 6 Cello Sonatas opus 5 Despite his long residence in the British capital and his good contacts among royalty and nobility, as shown by the dedications of his works, Francesco Geminianis excellent reputation has hardly outlived himself. Born in Lucca, Italy, inlike so many of his contemporary fellow countrymen he exchanged his home country for Englandand its buoyant musical life, especially in London.
After having been taught at home by his father he had had the opportunity to study the violin with both Arcangelo Corelli and Alessandro Scarlatti. As a violinist and as a composer he is unmistakably indebted to the former, who died in But Geminianis talents as a composer and his superior technical abilities on the violin enabled him to progress a great deal beyond what he had learned from his famous teachers.
Not having found the success he had expected in Italy he made the radical move to leave for London in By then he was already a superb virtuoso on the violin. He performed, taught and composed in England for over 30 years. Unlike his most famous colleague and at the time compatriot Handel Geminiani confined himself to instrumental music, which did not cause him any loss of public acclaim. On the contrary, he seems to have had a good nose for what audiences liked.
Soon after arriving in England he published his Opus 1, a set of twelve Violin Sonatas. The period between and has not been documen-ted and remains a complete blank in Geminianis biography. In concerto grosso arrangements of six of his teacher Corellis solo violin sonatas opus 5 followed. This was a stroke of luck which enhanced both Geminianis and Corellis reputations enormously at the same time, making the music by the latter accessible in more than one sense.
But then early eighteenth-century London had taken quite a shine to anything Italian and especially to Corellis work. Steadily continuing his activities in London it was probably suggested to Geminiani by one of his students, Matthew Dubourg, who had settled there inand conducted the orchestra in the Dublin premire of Handels Messiah, to visit the Irish capital.
He stayed in this city several times for longer periods. But the Italian, being a Catholic, would have had to change his religion in order to be able to accept this job and he declined. In though he opened a Concert Room in Spring Gardens, Dublin, using one floor as an art gallery to exhibit and sell paintings, another passion of his, which reputedly included works by Correggio and Caravaggio.
In Dublin his success as a violinist is said to have been phenomenal. Back in London the musician somehow became dissatisfied with his life and started to visit other foreign countries frequently. He regularly travelled to France, Italy which is only referred to by one music historianHolland and other countries. A further set of Twelve Violin Sonatas, Opus 4, was published in He particularly liked the concerto grosso form which allowed him to call upon all his skills for imaginative orchestration, intricate musical textures, and contrapuntal episodes.
In total he published four sets of his own Concerti Grossi, but one of his better commercial successes was the reworking of Corellis opus 5 violin sonatas. Geminiani was lucky in securing royal privileges for the exclusive publication of his works both in England in for 14 years and in France for 12 years. Thus his Pices de clavecin mainly arrangements of his own works for solo violin, but amazingly re-moulded to French taste and a further six concerti grossi arrangements once again of violin works, this time his opus 4 appeared in Three years later Paris saw the publication of his only set of Amarilli Mia Bella (I) - Jacob van Eyck* / Erik Bosgraaf - Der Fluyten Lust-hof (Selected Works) (CD) Sonatas for Cello and continuo opus 5, and of his last set of original Concerti Grossi, his opus 7.
It is unknown whether the cello sonatas were composed with a particular performer in mind. In any case the Parisian school of cello playing may have inspired Geminiani. For quite some time France had been anti-Italian, but this sentiment had gradually waned and musical exchanges took place on a large scale by the s, with Italian cellists playing in France and French viola da gamba players visiting Italy to study.
This cello music shows the distinctive Geminiani style which can be found in his later violin music as well. These sonatas come elaborated and ornamented, technically demanding and the explicit directions to the performer bear witness to his consciousness of the musical publics ever changing taste.
They are an intriguing and delicately balanced fusion of Italianate clarity and counterpoint and French lavishness of sonority and gesture. Geminiani recognizably drew on the French viola da gamba repertoire.
For in-stance in the first movement, Andante, of the second sonata. The additional complication in the voice leading of the upper against the lower melody and accompaniment part when writing for the cello provided the composer with a much appreciated challenge to his contrapuntal skills.
He frequently allowed the lines to cross. Apparently he liked the sonority of the two cellos immensely. This is particularly evident in the middle section of the final movement of sonata no. As in most of his other sonatas Geminiani followed in these cello sonatas Corellis number and order of movements: slow-fast-slow-fast. This with the exception of the 6th sonata which lacks the second slow movement.
There are four sonatas in a major key, the second and sixth being in minor. Unlike his teacher Geminiani not only applied embellishments in the slow movements of his solo sonatas, but in the fast ones as well. In their entirety these imaginative sonatas represent one of the best sets of baroque cello sonatas.
Their expres-siveness is highly attractive and partly due to his brilliant figuration. This, however, does not prevent the composer from touching on emotional depths as well, especially in both sonatas in the minor keys. Priska Frank Jaap ter Linden As one of the first early music specialists, Jaap ter Linden witnessed the very beginnings of many of the oldest and finest baroque ensembles as co-founder of Musica da Camera and principal cellist of Musica Antiqua Kln, The English Concert and the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra.
From these auspicious beginnings, he moved further into the spotlight, either playing solo concerts and intimate ensemble repertoire with the worlds finest interpreters or at the helm of an orchestra as conductor.
He founded and directs the Mozart Akademie with which he has recorded the complete Mozart symphonies and is a regular guest director and soloist with the Arion Ensemble Canada. He has led many period instrument orchestras such as the San Francisco Philharmonia Baroque, Portland Baroque and Amsterdam Bachsoloists and has lent his expertise to modern ensembles such as the Amsterdam Sinfonietta and the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie.
His extensive discography as player and conductor boasts many award-winning recordings for labels such as Harmonia Mundi, Archiv, ECM, Deutsche Grammophon and more recently Brilliant Classics. InJaap released his second recording of the Bach Cello Suites. From to he was harpsichordist with London Baroque and until with Collegium Musicum 90 leader: Simon Standage. Between and Lars Ulrik Mortensen was professor for harpsichord and performance practice at the Hochschule fr Musik in Munich, and he now teaches at numerous Early Music-courses throughout the world.
Until recently, Lars Ulrik Mortensen was also active as a conductor for modern orchestras in Sweden and Denmark, where especially his activities at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen - a. Kunzens Holger Danske in and Mozarts Marriage of Figaro in - met with great critical acclaim.
In the future, however, he wants to concentrate on work with period instrument ensembles. A series of Buxtehude-recordings from the s for the Danish Dacapo-label has met with universal critical acclaim. These recordings also received the Cannes Classical Award Directing Concerto Copenhagen, Mortensen has recorded the complete harpsichord concertos by J. Bach for CPO, which has received lavish praise in the international press, and also saw the release of recordings of Haydn piano concertos with soloist Ronald Brautigam on BIS as well as symphonies by the Danish composers J.
During her studies she was engaged at the Hamburg State Opera for four years and was famous for her extraordinary sight-reading. At this point of her life she decided to become a baroque cellist. Judith-Maria is a sought-after ensemble musician and Accordone and the Ensemble Aurora are only two of those she is performing with. She was also engaged as soloist by the polish Arte dei Suonatori.
Apart from her work as a concert musician she has been participating in several recordings with the labels PentaTone, Alpha and Cypres.
Whenever she is not playing the cello she enjoys her family life in Sweden with her husband and son. Father Georg had lost his first wife in and was already sixty when he remarried the daughter of a local pastor. Their first child was to die at birth and Georg Friedrich was the oldest surviving child of three - he was to have two younger sisters Dorothea Sophia and Johanna Christiana.
Father had plans that his son should join the respectable legal profession but his sons organ playing was noticed at the Ducal Court and Handels fate was sealed.
Handel subsequently, on his return to Halle, took up lessons with Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow, organist at the citys Liebfrauenkirche. Handels father died in and responsibility for his future now was left in the hands of his mother. The composer soon found his way to Berlin where he received the patronage of the court and took up tuition in the organ, harpsichord and violin as well as composition lessons.
Byit was clear that things would work out somewhat differently and the young Handel had already enrolled in the local Halle University where it seems he was set for a career in the Law.
By now he had fallen under the influence of the composer Telemann and would become probationary cathedral organist in his home town when the previous incumbent, Johann Christoph Leporin, was sacked. The cathedral also had its own oboe consort and it may be at this time that Handel was to compose the six oboe trio sonatas that are generally considered to be Handels earliest compositions - there is however some doubt as to the authenticity of these pieces although it is clear that at this time, the oboe was Handels favourite instrument.
The small provincial city of Halle, however, was soon proving to be too constrictive an environment for the young Georg Friedrich and the influence of Telemann and the opera set his sights on a move to the north German metropolis of Hamburg with its public opera house on the Gaensemarkt controlled by the now little known Reinhard Keiser, himself an opera composer in his own right. Just how Handel decided to go to Hamburg is unknown but he had arrived in the city by the summer of where he gained a post as violinist in the opera house orchestra.
In Hamburg Handel was to meet with the music loving Englishman John Wyche who was to offer him an introduction to a more international scene and perhaps give him his first ideas of a move to the England where he would find later fame. ByHandel was writing his own operas in Hamburg with some varied success and had even managed to fight a duel with his erstwhile colleague and competitor, the English composer John Matheson.
The same year saw the first performances of two of his own operas at the Gaensemarkt Theatre - Almira and Nero. Inexperience led him to visit Italy, firstly to Florence at the invitation of Count Ferdinand de Medici before moving on to Rome. He met the Scarlattis in Florence and the Prince of Hanover in Venice, who at the time was looking for a new Kapellmeister.
Handels journeys in Italy took him backwards and forwards between Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice and new works of the period included Il Trionfo del Tempo e Disinganno, some church settings and his first Italian opera Rodrigo premiered in Florence in October ByHandel had decided to leave Italy and to return to his native Germany but nor before the successful premiere of his opera Agrippina in the carnival season of that year.
The opera had been seen by diplomats from Hanover and from England and the now feted composer was to be invited by both countries to join their respective Courts. Before accepting their invitations however, Handel moved to the Tyrolean capital of Innsbruck for a short stay - he was on his way again by March Handel was soon in Hanover where he was offered a salary of Crowns but he was wary of settling anywhere that might have stopped him travelling freely and thus at the age of only twenty five, he left the city for the Rhineland and Dusseldorf.
Ever eager to be on the move, Handel was attracted by the offers from England and by the end of he found himself in London where the success of his opera Rinaldo premiered on February 24thand revived the following year, established his name in the English capital overnight. InHandel returned to Hanover for a brief stay but soon came into the service of the Hanoverian monarch in London and began to write not only operas for the London stage, but also occasional pieces for the Royal family including his anthems and the famous Water Music and Fireworks Music.
But London was also fired by rivalries in the musical world and Handels operas were soon to be marked by the contests of rival prima donnas. Restrictions on performances of stage works began in June and there was to be no further opera season there until This led Handel to inaugurate a new style of un-staged music theatre in his Oratorios, the first of which would be Estherwritten sometime in ByHandel was involved with the newly formed Royal Academy of Music which was to appoint him as master of its orchestra - a paid commission.
Byafter various visits to Germany he was back in London, bringing with him one of the most famous singers of the time - Senesino - and ready to embark on a new opera season. The next few years saw a return to the successful list of operas composed and presented by Handel, notably Giulio CesareTamerlanoRodelinda ByHandels successes allowed him to negotiate a new contract to provide operas at the Kings theatre for five years.
This prompted him to travel again to Germany and Italy for the purpose of engaging new stars for his opera seasons - amongst the new operas to be premiered would be Sosarme and Orlando At the same time, Handel was composing oratorios such as Deborah and Athalia A new opera season began in with performances at Covent Garden which were to include Ariodante - also occasioning a royal bounty for the operas of - and which would conclude with the premiere of one of the most successful of Handels works, Alcina It was a period where Handel was to become the most significant of all English composers - a journey from Germany through Italy that had finally put Georgian and Hanoverian London firmly on the map as the great capital of opera and oratorio.
Handels future in London was now assured but by March he was reported to be suffering from a very bad attack of rheumatism affecting his right hand, truly a manifestation of a paralysis which took him to Aix les Bains in search of a cure.
Despite this, his works continued apace and saw the completion of his Opus 5 trio sonatas as well as a series of concertos, to continue in Byperhaps his best known work Messiah was ready for performance but again inhe was reported to be dangerously ill.
Inthe country was in political disarray climaxing the following year in the defeat of the rebels at the Battle of Culloden - to be commemorated in his new oratorio Judas Maccabeus. Handels final years were marked by illness but nevertheless a continuing of composition of some of his finest oratorios, works which show a depth of feeling such as Jephtha and Theodora. In AugustHandel suffered a seizure which left him blind and although he was to live for another seven years, his health was now seriously compromised and he was to die at his London home on 14th April Clearly, Handels position in musical history as we see it today, rests mainly on his contributions to the fields of opera and oratorio, although this was not always so.
It was only in the final decades of the twentieth century that many of his operas and oratorios saw stage revivals often perhaps to the detriment of his orchestral and instrumental works. The present collection groups his chamber works or sonatas together to show that other non-vocal side of the composer in works that despite their brevity show a very fresh side to the composer not always so apparent in the longer works.
The works on these discs are all sonatas of one kind or another, ranging from the simple sonatas for a wind or string instrument to the more complex trio sonatas. The term sonata had been used in the sixteenth century for virtually These works were often composed for a solo instrument usually a violin or woodwind instrument with continuo harpsichord, clavichord etc. The opus numbers of Handels chamber works are confusing and do not necessarily refer to composition dates rather than dates of publication of Handels sonatas.
Thus the Opus One group consists of a series of works published in England in the s under the imprint of the publisher Thomas Walsh, all of which were written at an earlier date.
Some of these were written for specific instruments such as the treble recorder or the oboe, but usually the choice of solo instrument was left open.
These are simple and short works with an accent on melody and typical ornamentation of the Baroque style. The Opus Two collection was published a year later by Witvogel in Amsterdam and contains trio sonatas for recorder and violin in the French and Italian styles current at the time - these are works in free style consisting of maybe four or even five movements and which range from the simplicity of song like adagios to complex three part faster movements.
Six of the sonatas date from the period of to but were not published in a definitive edition until when John Walsh again took over the editing. Walsh then produced a second set of seven trio sonatas in numbering these as Opus Five - although five of these are pastiches from orchestral works from Many of these sonatas come under the term dubious and their original autographs have been lost, dating too is almost impossible in many cases - one sonata almost certainly comes from Handels fourteenth year opus 2 No2.
Despite these confusions, there is little in the historical facts to deter the listener today from still enjoying these thoroughly enjoyable outpourings of the earlier years of the English maestro who was almost single-handedly to create the glories of the Hanoverian Baroque.
David Doughty. The first mention of his coronation was at a meeting of the Privy Council on 11 August Under normal circumstances it is likely that the music would have been entrusted to the Organist and Composer of the Chapel Royal. But the holder of that position, William Croft, died on 14 August. Maurice Greene, recommended on 18 August by the Bishop of Salisbury as the greatest musical genius we have, was appointed on 4 September. Whether Greene expected to compose the coronation anthems is not known, but by 9 September it was known that Mr.
Hendel, the famous Composer to the opera, is appointed by the King to compose the Anthem at the Coronation which is to be sung in Westminster-Abbey at the Grand Ceremony.
The King himself insisted that Handel should compose the music instead of Greene. The text of Let thy Hand be strengthened and Zadok the Priest follow the text of the coronation ofwhich had recently be reprinted. The other two anthems have texts taken directly from the Book of Common Prayer and the Bible.
Handel responded to the receipt of the official texts for him to set: I have read my Bible very well, and shall choose for myself. The fact that Handel quotes the Bible references at the head of the three anthems whose opening pages survive suggests that he did indeed do so. The actual performance of the Coronation Anthems did not go smoothly, according to notes of the Archbishop Wake. Apart from the possibility that the Chapel Royal may not have been of a particularly high standard, there are two plausible reasons: confusion between the rival orders of service and poor communication between the performers.
They were disposed on two specially-erected galleries, with sight-lines interrupted by the altar. The forces Handel employed for the performance were hugh. Hendall: There being 40 voices, and about violins, trumpets, hautboys, kettle-drums, and Basss proportionable; besides an Organ, which was erected behind the Altar: and both the Musick and the Performance were the Admiration of all the Audience.
The Coronation Anthems enjoyed a hugh success and were performed countless times subsequently. Also today they evoke the same excitement and thrill as they must have done at their first performance. Bullock, from whom he also received organ lessons. From till he was musical director of the world-famous Choir of Kings College in Cambridge, with whom he gained a worldwide reputation.
With these choirs he made many recordings with world famous orchestras of the great choral masterworks. For this particular recording Sir David writes the following introduction: It is more than 65 years since, as a boy chorister, I first sang the Coronation Anthems of Handel in Westminster Abbey, where in the year Handel had conducted the first performance of the anthems at the coronation of King George II and his wife, Queen Caroline. I remember the excitement that I felt as I experienced for the first time the orchestral introduction and first choral entry of Zadok the Priest.
That boyhood love of Handels music has remained with me throughout my life, so it has been a special pleasure to participate in the public performances of the Coronation Anthems in Holland with the splendid Stadknapenkoor Elburg and the Dutch Baroque Orchestra, and also to take part in a CD recording and a production for television with the same forces. I wish to express my admiration for the care with which Pieter Jan Leusink prepared the choir and the orchestra. The choir gives yearly 50 concerts in Holland, and has made several international tours, to Notre Dame in Paris, St.
The choir performed especially for Queen Beatrix in Elburg. They made recordings of Mahlers 3rd and 8th symphony with conductor Edo de Waart. Singers are therefore advised to use the sheet music only in oratorio items or complex contemporary works, in line with common performance practice.
In preparing for the exam, you may find it helpful to attend recitals on a regular basis in order to learn from approaches taken by professional performers. Critical listening and comparison of interpretations on record, combined with reading about performance techniques and practices, will also be useful.
Finally, get to know not only Amarilli Mia Bella (I) - Jacob van Eyck* / Erik Bosgraaf - Der Fluyten Lust-hof (Selected Works) (CD) pieces within your programme but also their general context within each composers output and the musical era. The Viva Voce is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your knowledge, approach and understanding to the examiners.
Questions will cover your Recital and your Programme Notes, as well as other aspects of performing. The Viva Voce lasts up to 12 minutes. Typical areas of discussion in the Viva Voce:. Musical and instrumental outlook: questions designed to put you at ease and to lead into the discussion, including: choice of repertoire, the challenges presented and the preparation involved; knowledge of the underlying concepts and principles associated with your instrument.
Repertoire and Programme Notes: knowledge of the repertoire performed, including biographical information about each composer and the context of each work in the composers life and output; details of commission if any ; the process of composition and first performance; knowledge of the general musical trends of the era and the place of each work in the context of the core repertoire.
Musical language and form: understanding of the structure of each work and the features of its musical language. Style and interpretation: understanding of style and technique; knowledge of each work in the context of the instrument itself: historical developments, idiom, core repertoire and technical demands; the interpretation of notation and ways to communicate the composers intentions; performance practices including original instrumentation; approaches to performance, including the use of physical space, memory and communication with an audience.
Any further points you wish to draw to the examiners attention before the conclusion. The opening questions will be informal, progressing to topics on which you are likely to be knowledgeable, then on to more challenging questions. All the questions will be clearly and directly expressed by the examiners; some will be open-ended, others will be more specific. You will not be penalized if you ask for clarification of a question, and the examiners will not be concerned by short periods of silence when an answer is being considered.
You may opt not to answer a question because, for example, you feel you might expose an area of fundamental ignorance. If this happens, the examiners will assist you with a number of helpful prompts. They will form a judgement as to whether your incapacity to offer an answer to a particular question or series of questions is a significant factor in the assessment of your overall performance in the exam. If appropriate, you may demonstrate a particular feature or point by performing it, rather than describing it verbally.
Appendix 1 contains a number of specimen questions and indicative responses, showing the types of question examiners might ask in the Viva Voce and an indication of appropriate responses. If you are not fluent in English you are strongly advised to bring an interpreter see Language and interpreters, p.
Before you perform the Quick Study, you will be given five minutes in which to look through the music and to try out any parts of it. During this time the examiners will not be assessing you. In total, the Quick Study lasts up to 10 minutes. Notes for The Quick Study will be either for tuned percussion or timpani: the examiner will percussionists choose the test according to the instruments brought to the exam.
Notes for singers The Quick Study tests for singers are printed with a simple piano accompaniment, which candidates may use if they wish, to any degree of fullness, during their preparation time. During this time, candidates may also play any part of the vocal line at the piano. The actual performance of the test is unaccompanied, although candidates who need to relocate their pitch may play a guide note from the vocal lineas appropriate. Candidates may also use the piano to play the key-chord and their starting note before performing the test.
Examiners will not assist candidates as accompanist, nor will any other party be permitted to. Candidates must sing the text and will be offered a choice of English or Italian words. You should inform the examiners of your preferred order at the start of the exam. Specimen Quick Study tests are available as free downloads for all subjects from www.
Since the Quick Study tests have all been composed specifically for the diploma exams, they tend to be in a modern, approachable style, although some of the tests have been written in pastiche styles. For keyboard instruments, guitar, harp and singing, the test will normally be laid out over two pages. For all other instruments, the test will normally occupy one page.
The tests for all instruments are unaccompanied singing candidates: see Notes for singers above. It is not the length of the test but the technical and musical challenges with which you will be presented that you should concentrate on in preparing for the exam. Making it a habit to explore music unknown to you, and treating the exploration as a quick study exercise, will give you useful experience for the exam. On the day, make sure you have mentally adjusted before you undertake the test; for example, if you have chosen to perform the Quick Study after your Viva Voce, do not allow yourself to think about aspects of the Viva Voce discussion, such as ideas you omitted to mention or might have expressed differently.
Using the five minutes preparation time to full advantage is vital to your success in the Quick Study. To play through sections that do not need any attention is a waste of valuable time go straight to the bars that matter. Try to avoid the common mistakes of either playing too slowly in order to get every note correct, or nervously hurrying and tripping over. Getting just the right tempo to allow the music to speak is crucial. And finally, try to project the musical content and style in an expressive way, communicating the music with your best tone quality.
You may, however, also include in your programme a work or works of your own choice not listed on these pages but comparable in standard and lasting no longer than one third of the total platform time; prior approval from ABRSM is not required for any such alternative items.
In your choice of repertoire, you should aim to present a balanced programme that includes a contrast of repertoire from at least two distinct musical eras. Variety of mood and tempo should also be a guiding factor in the construction of the programme. You should be prepared to discuss your choice of editions with the examiners in the Viva Voce. Specialist option As an alternative to performing as a solo recitalist for your entire programme, you may opt to present one third of your Recital within one of the three specialist areas listed below.
The choice of repertoire is entirely at your own discretion, although it should be comparable in standard to the items in the lists on pp.
There is no advantage to be gained over other candidates by offering a specialist option. Please note that if you offer a specialist option, the remainder of your Recital programme must be chosen from the syllabus list for your instrument see pp.
You must indicate your specialist option on the entry form. Orchestral musician: you are required to present orchestral excerpts, either unaccompanied or accompanied by your pianist. You should anticipate that the examiners will ask for an excerpt or excerpts to be repeated and that they may ask for a different tempo or approach to the one presented.
Therefore, the total playing time of the excerpts need not be the full one third of the programme. Chamber ensemble member: you are required to supply your ensemble for the purposes of the exam at your own expense. Groups should normally number between 3 and 9 players including yourselfwith one player to each part. Keyboard accompanist: you are required to supply your duo partner for the purposes of the exam at your own expense.
The following additional guidance is provided for LRSM candidates offering one of the three specialist options. These have been designed for candidates wishing to display their skills in a particular branch of performance activity orchestral, chamber, or keyboard accompaniment alongside their skills as a solo recitalist. Should you choose to present orchestral excerpts, you will find that there are numerous published collections of excerpts for your instrument, and it may also be helpful to talk to orchestral musicians about the works that are frequently set at auditions.
Although at LRSM level there is an entirely free choice of orchestral repertoire, you may find it useful to refer to the orchestral excerpts set for the FRSM exam see the lists on pp. The chamber option provides an opportunity for you to demonstrate your skills as a member of an ensemble, fulfilling the demands of your own line while contributing to the whole as a team player. Keyboard accompanists, like chamber musicians, will be assessed on their understanding of their part in relation to their duo partner.
The Viva Voce lasts up to 15 minutes. Musical and instrumental outlook: questions designed to put you at ease and to lead into the discussion, including choice of repertoire, the challenges presented and the preparation involved. Repertoire and Programme Notes: detailed knowledge of the repertoire performed, including biographical information about each composer and the context of each work in the composers life and output; details of commission if any ; the process of composition and first performance; detailed knowledge of the general musical trends of the era and the place of each work in the context of the core repertoire and programme building.
Musical language and form: indepth understanding of the structure of each work and its musical language; influences on the composer; each works individuality and how far it is representative of the composer and the era. Style and interpretation: understanding of style, technique and ensemble; knowledge of each work in the context of the instrument itself: historical developments, idiom, core repertoire and technical demands; the interpretation of notation and ways to communicate the composers intentions; performance practices including original instrumentation; editions; performances and recordings; approaches to performance, including the use of physical space, memory and communication with an audience.
See also the notes for percussionists and singers on p. To be submitted Three copies of a Written Submission, which should address idiomatic features and with your entry performance issues connected with the Recital, must be submitted when you enter for the diploma.
Full details regarding the Written Submission, including length, are given on pp. Programming Your programme should be drawn from the prescribed lists of instrumental and vocal works or movements given on pp.
You may, however, also include in your programme a work or works of your own choice not listed on these pages but comparable in standard and lasting no longer than two thirds of the total platform time; prior approval from ABRSM is not required for any such alternative items.
In your choice of repertoire, you should aim to present a specialist programme which may concentrate on one composer or period but should be internally balanced, containing sufficient contrast of mood and style. Specialist option As an alternative to performing as a solo recitalist for your entire programme, you may opt to present at least half, and no more than two thirds, of your Recital within one of the three specialist areas listed below.
The choice of repertoire can be at your own discretion, although it should be comparable in standard to the items in the lists on pp. Orchestral musician: you are required to present orchestral excerpts, either unaccompanied or accompanied by your pianist, including those listed on pp. Therefore, the total playing time of the excerpts need not meet the minimum time specification. The following additional guidance is provided for FRSM candidates offering one of the three specialist options.
Please note that you must include those orchestral excerpts listed for your instrument on pp. Questions will cover your Recital and your Written Submission, as well as other aspects of performing.
The Viva Voce lasts up to 20 minutes. Repertoire and Written Submission: comprehensive knowledge of the repertoire performed, including biographical information about each composer and the context of each work in the composers life and output; familiarity with significant contemporaries; knowledge of the standard repertoire and programme building; points of clarification in the Written Submission; questions prompting expansion, analysis and evaluation of particularly interesting or original points; ability to deal with complex issues and to communicate conclusions clearly to a specialist and nonspecialist audience.
Musical language and form: perceptive insights into the structure of each work and its musical language; influences on the composer; each works degree of innovation and personal style as opposed to conformity with contemporary trends and received or traditional style, and the level of success achieved. In this section of the exam, you are required to perform a short piece of unaccompanied and previously unseen music of a standard similar to ABRSM Grade 8 repertoire.
NB the Quick Study tests at this level for all subjects are generally laid out over two pages. Performance skills covering a range of styles, including technical competence and musical understanding. Knowledge and understanding of the repertoire performed, including its idiom, form, style and interpretation. Communication skills and ability to articulate knowledge and understanding through musical performance, orally and in writing.
Musical literacy and musicianship skills, including the ability to perform previously unseen music. Ability to deal with complex issues and to communicate conclusions clearly to a specialist and non-specialist audience. To be eligible to enter for a diploma, you will need to show that you fulfil a specific ABRSM prerequisite as evidence that you have reached a required minimum level of competence.
However, reflecting our aim to provide open access and to recognize candidates achievements, we offer a range of possible substitutions or alternatives for these prerequisites.
The substitutions are given in the table below alongside the prerequisites. Appropriate professional experience see p. If you have a qualification that you consider to be at a higher level than those specified in the table above, you may apply for it to be accepted as a substitution for the listed prerequisite. There are no time limits on the validity of prerequisites. Supporting If you are fulfilling the prerequisite through one of the listed substitutions, you will documentation need to enclose supporting documentation with your entry form.
In the case of qualifications, you should enclose a photocopy of the relevant certificate. For courses or parts of coursesa signed declaration from the institution concerned is acceptable standard wording for this declaration is given on p. All other countries: a photocopy of the certificate or mark form should be enclosed in all cases.
Appropriate professional experience At all three levels you may apply to offer appropriate professional experience as a substitution for the standard ABRSM prerequisite. This is done by filling in the application form on p. The form must reach ABRSM at least six weeks before the published closing date for the session in which you wish to be examined. It is important to note that applying for this substitution is a separate procedure from sending in your entry form, and that approval of your professional experience must already have been given before you can enter for the diploma.
Please note the following points: The professional experience that you cite on your application form must be comparable in both subject and level to the prerequisite you are applying to substitute. This experience should consist of some or all of the following: full-time music courses other than those listed in the table on pp. These should have been undertaken or completed within the preceding five years.
Suggested standard wording for this declaration is given on p. General information regarding submissions In this syllabus, the word submission refers to:. These are pieces of prepared work that you will be expected to discuss with the examiners as part of your Viva Voce and which contribute to the Viva Voce Section 2. Declaration of All submissions must genuinely be your own work and you are accordingly genuine work required to complete a candidate declaration form substantiating each submission.
This form is to be found on the entry form as well as on our website www. In the case of the Written Submission, the declaration form must be submitted with your entry.
For Programme Notes, you must present the examiners with your declaration form on the day of the exam, along with the Programme Notes themselves. If the examiners perceive a significant discrepancy between the level of authority of a submission and your performance in the Viva Voce allowing for the fact that you may be nervousit may be necessary to probe deeper to establish that the work is genuinely your own.
Thus, copying from a published or unpublished source without acknowledging it, or constructing a prcis of someone elses writing or ideas without citing that writer, constitutes plagiarism. The Chief Examiner will consider all suspected cases and candidates will be penalized or disqualified if a charge of plagiarism is upheld.
Candidates will have a right of appeal and representation if such a charge is made. Other points. For quality-assurance purposes, you should not identify your name on or inside any submission. Instead, ABRSM will attach a candidate number to each submission before passing it on to the examiners. Permission to use copyright extracts from musical scores is not usually required for exam submissions.
You must ensure, however, that you quote the appropriate publisher credit. If in any doubt, you should contact the publisher concerned. A submission may not be drawn upon for future use at a higher level of ABRSM diploma, although reference to it may be cited.
A failed submission may form the basis of a resubmission at the same level. A submission must neither have been previously published nor submitted to any institution or agency for another academic award. ABRSM reserves the right to refuse examination of any submission if, in its view, it contains material of an unsuitable, unseemly or libellous nature.
ABRSM regrets that it cannot return any submissions, so you are advised to keep a copy for your records. Specific details regarding the Programme Notes and Written Submission are given on the following pages.
If your Programme Notes are in a language other than English, one copy of the original should be submitted together with two copies of an independently verified translation into English.
The Notes should discuss and illuminate in your own words the works you have chosen to perform in your Recital, and they must be authenticated as your own work by a declaration form see p. Remember that you should be prepared to discuss your Programme Notes in your Viva Voce.
In addition, all the pages must be consecutively numbered. Please remember that you must not identify your name anywhere on or inside your Programme Notes. At DipABRSM level, you should write your Programme Notes as if for a general concert audience that is, an audience of non-musicians who are interested in music and are relatively knowledgeable. If your programme contains standard repertoire works, the generalist audience will probably already know something about them and may have heard either live or recorded performances of them before.
Writing about very well-known pieces may initially seem a daunting task what more can there be left to say about Bachs Cello Suites or Beethovens Moonlight Sonata? But the audience will still appreciate being reminded, or told for the first time, of the background to the pieces, the composers intentions, and other relevant information about the works and what makes them popular.
Some technical but universally common language may be helpful and necessary, but its meaning should always be clear. The following examples show the style of writing you are aiming for at DipABRSM level: The defining features of the chaconne are a triple metre and an ostinato repeating.
The repeated bass line of this chaconne is simply a series of four descending notes, which can be heard very clearly in the piano introduction. Like the majority of Scarlattis arias, Ergiti, amor uses the da capo aria form that. It consists of three sections ABAin which the repeated A section is usually sung with additional ornamentation.
Towards the end of the movement there is the conventional cadenza passage. The cadenza played today is not an improvisation, but has been written by the performer in a Mozartian style.
Format Your Programme Notes must be typed or printed in black, and the title page must contain the following information:. At LRSM level, you need to discuss the musical content in more detail and with more technical language. Write as though Amarilli Mia Bella (I) - Jacob van Eyck* / Erik Bosgraaf - Der Fluyten Lust-hof (Selected Works) (CD) Programme Notes are going to be read by an intelligent, informed reader.
Here are some examples: In the Adagio, effective use is made of many of the violins tone colours, for. This contributes to one of the essential features of the composers style his unique adaptation of French impressionism. The oriental-influenced harmonic and melodic language is in complete contrast to the previous movement, with its emphasis on tonal melody and conventional triadic harmony.
While the basic binary AB structure of the theme is maintained, the second section is much extended with contrapuntal elaborations of the melodic material. The serene rondo theme of the finale is anchored to a deep pedal note and has the. The spacious layout of the movement allows for two episodes easily discernible since the tension increases as each plunges into strident and energetic octave passages in minor keys as well as for a good deal of development besides.
The rondo theme becomes the focus of the brilliant prestissimo coda in which long trills decorate the penultimate appearance, anticipating Beethovens most mature style of piano writing. It clearly shows the expectations at DipABRSM and LRSM levels and discusses in detail aspects such as the use of descriptive language, prose style, format and the use of technical terms.
Clear guidance is also given regarding the degree of analysis and evaluation required, particularly through the provision of examples. If your Written Submission is in a language other than English, one copy of the original should be submitted together with three copies of an independently verified translation into English.
The Written Submission should address idiomatic features and performance issues connected with your Recital, and it must be authenticated as your own work by a declaration form see p.
Remember that you should be prepared to discuss your Written Submission in your Viva Voce. Please remember that you must not identify your name anywhere on or inside your Written Submission. You do not need to make reference to the whole programme. Appropriate areas for discussion might include issues about period and style or analytical approaches that illuminate interpretation.
Other possible topics include issues of authenticity, reception history, the influence of wider cultural developments, the study of manuscript sources, the history of critical thought in relation to the repertoire, and the relationship between each work and its composers output. The Submission should include personal insights and contain substantial evidence of critical evaluation and appropriate research.
It should also reflect the preoccupations relevant to you as a performer as well as any issues that you take into account in your work. Above all, ABRSM would like to encourage candidates to think creatively about their Submission and to research a topic that focuses on an area of personal interest, i.
Trevor Herberts Music in Words London: ABRSM, defines presentational conventions for written work, while also providing a basis for researching and writing at higher educational levels. Each diploma entry form is accompanied by a supplementary information leaflet, which contains clear step-by-step instructions to help you fill in your entry form.
In all other countries, entry forms can be obtained from our website or from the local Representative. Payment and fees Payment must be made at the time of entry and your fee is dependent on the level of diploma and whether you are making a substitution. For candidates in the UK and Republic of Ireland, the fees for all three levels of diploma are given on the entry form, which is issued annually with updated fee details. Candidates in all other countries should refer to the exam dates and fees section of the website.
Submissions and When returning your entry form and fee, please ensure that you carefully complete the supporting checklist on the entry formenclosing any of the following required documentation documentation and submissions: documentation supporting your prerequisite or substitution for a prerequisite see p. Where to send In the UK and Republic of Ireland, completed entry forms, together with fees, your entry submissions and any supporting documents, should be sent to the address indicated on the entry form, and must be received by the closing date published in the supplementary information leaflet.
In all other countries, completed entry forms etc. We regret that we cannot accept responsibility for the loss of any documents in the post, and we recommend you use a guaranteed postal delivery method.
Entries for diplomas can be accepted by ABRSM only in accordance with the regulations given in this syllabus and on the understanding that in all matters our decision must be accepted as final. We reserve the right to refuse or cancel any entry, in which case the exam fee will be returned.
You will normally be greeted by a steward and, where a practice room is available, allowed a short time to warm up prior to entering the exam room. A piano is provided at all centres, for use by soloists as well as accompanists. If you are an organ, harpsichord or percussion candidate, the exam venue must be organized by you, at no cost to ABRSM. It should be quiet and well-lit and should contain a writing table and chairs for the examiners. Someone should be provided to act as steward outside the exam room.
If necessary, you must arrange transport for the examiners, to enable the exam timetable to be completed within the most suitable itinerary. Dates of examination In the UK and Republic of Ireland, diploma exams are held on the dates specified in the supplementary information leaflet.
In all other countries, exams are held on the dates given on our website for each country. Examiners Number of examiners One or two examiners will be present at each diploma exam. Monitoring For monitoring Amarilli Mia Bella (I) - Jacob van Eyck* / Erik Bosgraaf - Der Fluyten Lust-hof (Selected Works) (CD) moderation purposes, the live aspects of your diploma will normally be audio-recorded by the examiners and returned to London after your exam.
By submitting your entry you agree to your exam being recorded and to the recording becoming the property of ABRSM no copy will be made available to you and, for the avoidance of doubt, the audio-recording has the status of an examination script and is therefore exempt from subject access requests under the Data Protection Act The recording may be used anonymously for training purposes.
To submit feedback, visit the Contact Us page at www. The examiners and you Where two examiners are present, one examiner will, wherever possible, be a specialist in your discipline, and the other will be a generalist. Each examiner will mark you independently. After the exam Marking The marking process is designed to be fair and open.
All candidates are assessed according to a two-section examination structure, amounting to a total of marks. Section 1 accounts for 60 of the total marks, with the two components of Section 2 accounting for the remaining 40 marks. All components of both sections must be passed in order for a diploma to be awarded. Section 2.
The examiners review Programme Notes during the exam, whereas the Written Submission is assessed before the exam and given a guideline mark, which is then confirmed or adjusted on the basis of your responses in the Viva Voce. Tables outlining the marking criteria for all components of the Music Performance diplomas are given in Appendix 2 on pp. Results and quality On the day of your exam, the examiners will not give any indication of your result.
After assurance the examiners have returned the mark form and recorded evidence to ABRSM, a sample of these will be reviewed as part of our rigorous quality-asssurance procedures. Results are likely to be despatched approximately eight weeks after your exam. All results your certificate if successful and the examiners mark form will be despatched by post. We regret that we are not able to give any results by telephone, fax or e-mail, nor can we accept responsibility for the loss of results in the post.
Retakes If you are unsuccessful in any part of your diploma, you may wish to consider a retake. Please bear in mind, however, that your diploma must be completed within three years from your first attempt. You may choose to retake the entire exam in order to aim for higher marks. Alternatively, you are entitled to carry credit forward from any component Recital, Viva Voce or Quick Study from your previous attempt.
The examiners will be aware of any credit carried forward, but this will in no way affect the objectivity of the assessment process. Details of retake options are included in the letter accompanying results.
Appeals An appeals procedure exists for diploma exams see www. In all cases, appeals should be submitted within 14 days of the issue of the result and clearly state the grounds for appeal. ABRSM aims to acknowledge receipt of appeal correspondence within three working days and to resolve all appeals within four weeks of the acknowledgement.
In the exceptional circumstance that ABRSMs decision regarding an appeal is not accepted, an independent review may be requested as to the correctness of the application of ABRSMs appeal procedure. Any such request should be made within 14 days of the dispatch of ABRSMs decision and must be addressed in writing to the Chief Executive. ABRSM aims to acknowledge the request within three working days and to respond with the outcome within four weeks of the acknowledgement.
The findings of the independent review will be fully taken into account by the Chief Executive, who will make the final decision. Access Standard arrangements exist for candidates who have a visual or hearing impairment, for candidates or learning difficulties such as dyslexia or autistic spectrum disorders.
Details of these with specific needs arrangements are given in the supplementary information leaflet accompanying the entry form. In addition, ABRSM publishes guidelines for blind and partially-sighted candidates, deaf and hearing-impaired candidates, candidates with dyslexia, candidates with autistic spectrum disorders including Asperger syndrome and candidates with other specific needs; these separate documents are available from the Access Co-ordinator.
Candidates whose requirements are not covered above, or who have particular physical access requirements, are requested to write to the Access Co-ordinator with full details. ABRSM will then liaise with the relevant exam venue to ensure that all feasible arrangements are made. ABRSMs policy does not make any concessions in terms of marking standards; rather, we try to alter the administration of our exams or, occasionally, to provide an alternative test or mode of assessment, in line with the particular needs of the candidate.
Absence If you are unable to be present for your exam, you should notify ABRSM immediately, giving an explanation of your inability to attend. Provided your withdrawal is made necessary by an unavoidable event such as illness or bereavementpart of the entry fee may be refunded at the discretion of ABRSM. In the case of illness, a medical certificate is required. Alternatively, in all countries other than the UK and Republic of Ireland, and at ABRSMs discretion, a voucher may be issued entitling the candidate to re-enter the exam within one year of the original exam date.
Such a voucher cannot subsequently be exchanged for cash. A candidate re-entered on a voucher and again absent is not entitled to any further concession. If you are not comfortable using English, you are interpreters strongly advised to bring an independent person who is neither your teacher nor a relative to act as interpreter in the exam room. Please tick the relevant box on the entry form.
Extra time will be allowed in such cases. Any costs incurred are the responsibility of the candidate. Candidates may make use of ABRSMs interpreter service, where available for details, contact your local Representativeon payment of an additional fee. Candidates should bear in mind that exams are normally recorded see Monitoring, p.
Replacement A duplicate of a certificate can usually be provided on payment of a search fee. A further fee may be required if information is inaccurate. Candidates are advised to study these requirements carefully when planning their Recital programmes.
For Amarilli Mia Bella (I) - Jacob van Eyck* / Erik Bosgraaf - Der Fluyten Lust-hof (Selected Works) (CD) details of publishers referred to in the following repertoire lists see www. A brace is used in the repertoire lists to indicate instances where two or more items appear in the same volume, e.
Brahms 8 Piano Pieces, Op. Brahms 2 Rhapsodies, Op. Brahms 7 Fantasies, Op. Chopin Complete Piano Works, Vol. Faur Piano Works, Vol. Any one of the 12 pieces from Iberia, except no. Regard de ltoile: no. Schirmer Sonata in E minor, Kp. Schirmer 6 Little Pieces, Op. Schubert 4 Impromptus, D. Schubert Sonatas, Vol. Brahms 6 Piano Pieces, Op. Brahms 4 Piano Pieces, Op.
Haydn Complete Keyboard Sonatas, Vol. Liszt Piano Works, Vol. Schirmer Sonata in G minor, Kp. Schirmer 2 Sonatas in G, Kp. Scriabin Piano Works, Vol. Bach J. Partita no. Brahms Variations, Op. Mendelssohn Complete Piano Works, Vol. Prokofiev Sonatas for Piano, Vol. Masques, Op. Pieces which require a two-manual harpsichord are indicated by an asterisk following the title.
Sonata in E minor, Wq. Bach 7 Toccatas Henle Suite no. Couperin Pices de Clavecin, Vol. Handel Keyboard Works, Vol. Sonata in A minor, Wq.
Schirmer Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, a 4 voci Hexachord Fantasia. Sonata in G, Hob. Baroque Keyboard Pieces, Book 5, ed. Schirmer 2 Sonatas in C, Kp. Schirmer R 2 Sonatas in D, Kp. Early Spanish Keyboard Music, Vol. Sonata in Ab, Wq. Bach 7 Toccatas Henle In Nomine.
Scarlatti 60 Sonatas, Vol. Scarlatti Sonatas, Vol. Sweelinck Works for Organ and Keyboard Dover. Le Jardin suspendu. Bach Organ Works Brenreiter Vol. Buxtehude Organ Works Brenreiter Vol. Franck Complete Organ Works, Vol. Alain Organ Works, Vol. Brenreiter Vol. Liszt Complete Organ Works, Vol. Sweelinck Selected Organ Works, Vol. Divertimento: no. Schirmer Romance in F, Op. Beethoven 2 Romances Henle 1st movement from any one of the following Sonatas: Op.
Mozart Sonatas for Piano and Violin, Vol. Catherine Leduc Concerto no. Kochanski Universal UE Sonata in G minor Didone abbandonataOp. Partita for solo violin no. Schoenberg Schubert Schumann Sibelius B. Beethoven Sonatas for Piano and Violin, Vol. Sonata: 2nd and 3rd movts Lengnick Cello Suite no. Forbes Chester D Cello Suite no. Schirmer Sonata in F minor, Op.
Pagels: nos. Bartk Bax L. Jacob Maconchy Martinu Milhaud. Paul Patterson Rawsthorne Reger J. Concerto in C minor, arr. Casadesus: 2nd and 3rd movts Salabert Any one of the following combinations of movements from one of the 6 Bach Solo Cello Suites, trans. Forbes Chester : Cello Suite no. Cello Suite no. Forbes Cello Suite no. Stamitz Vaughan Williams Walton.
Suite no. Schirmer Sonata no. Bach L. Candidates may choose to play any of the following works using editions published for either solo scordatura or orchestral tuning, provided the piano part is suitably transposed wherever necessary. Any two movements from one of the 6 Solo Violoncello Suites, trans. Sankey: 3rd and 4th movts IMC Concerto no.
Dragonetti attrib. Jacob Koussevitzky. Any Prlude and one other movement from one of the 6 Solo Violoncello Suites, trans. Zimmermann publ. Bach, Op. Suite Valenciana: 1st movt, Preludi Brben Any one of the following movements or combinations of movements from one of the following works included in Bach Lute Suites for Guitar, ed.
Some of the variations are considered challenging even for an experienced recorder player. Der Fluyten Lust-hof remains the largest work for a solo wind instrument in European history; it is also the only work of this magnitude to have been dictated rather than written down by the composer. Thank goodness, then, for the likes of Erik Bosgraaf, who has recorded a generous selection from this masterpiece for us mortals to stroll through in relative ease and comfort.
Der Fluyten Lust-hof, a collection largely comprising variations for solo recorder on popular tunes and psalm melodies, was printed in Amsterdam between andand was a great success. Twelve different instruments are used in order to capture the different characteristics of each piece, ranging from sopranino to tenor; in three of the tracks, Bosgraaf is sympathetically accompanied by Izhar Elias.
As a reference work this set should be considered indispensable; as one to be dipped in for pleasure, highly desirable. Bosgraaf was born in Drachten, Netherlands. He received his Master of Arts in musicology from Utrecht University in In Bosgraaf, under the supervision of musicologist Thiemo Wind, released a 3-CD-box with compositions of the Dutch composer Jacob van Eyck —a collection which attained unexpected commercial success and sold more than 25, copies.
In the —12 season he was nominated by Concertgebouw Amsterdam and the Centre for Fine Arts, Brussels, on behalf of the German ECHO music award organisation, to take part in the Rising Stars series for a tour of the most important concert halls in Europe. The trio at first focused mainly on 17th-century music, then, under the same name Cordevento, the ensemble from also works as a small baroque orchestra in single strength.
In this broad formation the ensemble mainly aims at 18th-century repertoire. The first CD, featuring recorder concertos by Antonio Vivaldi, was released in A CD featuring recorder transcriptions of concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach was released inand an album title La Monarcha was released in Beside his activities in chamber music Bosgraaf frequents the orchestral stage with symphony and chamber orchestras.
He often plays a mixture of early and more recent music with these orchestras. He has also performed with The Royal Wind Music. It was released in In Bosgraaf received a Borletti-Buitoni Trust Award which enabled him amongst others to purchase a set of special recorders.
In Erik Bosgraaf received the most prestigious Dutch Music Prize, the highest national prize for music. CD 1: Preludium Of Voorspel 0. Phantasia 2. Lavolette 2. Een Schots Lietjen 2. Comagain 5.
Silvester In De Morgenstont Lanterlu Tweede Carileen Stil, Stil Een Reys Blydschap Van Mijn Vliedt De Eerste Licke-pot I Almande Prime Roses Bravade Princes Roaeyle Onder De Linde Groene Lossy Gabrielle Maditelle Ballet O Slaep, O Zoete Slaep 4. CD 2: Fantasia Excusemoy Prins Robberts Masco Amarilli Mia Bella I Amarilli Mia Bella II Engels Nachtegaeltje Ballette Bronckhorst Eerste Carileen Si Vous Me Voules Guerir Psalm Courante Mars Onse Vader In Hemelryck Psalm 9 Kits Almande CD 3: Vande Lombart More Palatino De France Courant PsalmOfte Tien Geboden Courante 1 Boffons Repicavan Bocxvoetje Wilhelmus Van Nassouwen Noch Een Veranderingh Van Wilhelmus Philis Schoone Harderinne 3.
Orainge 2. Derde Carileen 4. Psalm 5. Questa Dolce Sirena 2. Sarabande 2. Tweede Lavignone 3. O Heyligh Zaligh Bethlehem 3. Vierde Carileen 4. Batali 4. Een Spaense Voys 1.
For those who think that percussion should be restricted to timekeeping, A Coat of Many Colors may come as something of a surprise.
Bill Bruford began life as an art rocker with bands including Yes and King Crimson, but in recent years has devoted himself more completely to his acoustic Earthworks band, featuring woodwind multi-instrumentalist Tim Garland in a jazz context that blends complex composition with open-ended improvisation. While everyone has an opportunity to stretch and improvise, these are not bombastic free-for-alls, but organized and orchestrated percussion pieces that range from being purely visceral to surprisingly melodic, in their own way, despite being perpetually rhythm-happy.
The fifteen-minute video performance on the DVD side of this DualDisc release which also has two bonus audio tracks allows one to see just how orchestrated the music is, revealing the synchronicity that takes place between the four players. The mix perfectly mirrors the onstage image on the front cover—Wackerman on the left, followed by Rose, Conte and, finally, Bruford on the right—making it possible to not only absorb the music as a whole, but also resolve and hear what each individual is contributing to the blend.
A little over a third of the CD is taken up by compositions by Rose, which range from primitive simplicity to complex interaction. But most strikingly, throughout all the music, rhythm and melody intersect effectively on instruments that many have come to think of in purely metric terms. The biggest surprises of A Coat of Many Colors are how eminently listenable it is and how captivating its diversity is from start to finish. This album of percussion compositions, perhaps unexpectedly, should attract a broad audience.
Conundrum 1. Majorette Prism Ritm Kompozisyon 9. A Coat Of Many Colours 4. Self Portrait 7. The drummer passed away today, August 19,at the age of Doudou died in a Dakar hospital after being taken ill on Wednesday morning. During the course of his long life, Alessandro Scarlatti was not only a prolific composer of opera, he wrote more than cantatas, many of which consisted of miniature scenes and often incorporated solo instruments to set off the voice. This disc contains a selection of pieces that could have been used in the various venues in Rome he haunted during the period aroundand thus it is a sort of grouping that works well.
It is clear from the notes that Jean-Marc Andrieu, the conductor of the home-grown early music ensemble in Lyon, Les Passions Baroque orchestra, was responsible for putting together the selections on the disc, driven partly, one suspects, by the availability of the soprano soloist, Isabelle Poulenard, and a guest trumpeter, Serge Tizac.
In any case, the selections do go well together, and the range of tone provides considerable variety, from a recorder concerto to a rousing soprano-and-trumpet tour de force battle aria that concludes the disc. The orchestra is typical for Italy during this period, generally restricted to a pair of violins and basso continuo. For the latter, Andrieu uses combinations of theorbo, Baroque harp, and the usual lower strings plus harpsichord, which result in a rather varied sound anchoring the various movements.
In the concerto, really a five-movement da chiesa style suite of alternating contrapuntal and slow movements in which the recorder is integrated and really has few solo moments of the sort one associates typically with a concerto, the continuo texture varies.
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